As we all know that learning is an important activity in the teaching-learning process. Learning not only changes the behaviour of the organism but also modifies it. During the teaching-learning process, student and teacher both face many difficulties, so for removing this difficulty there is a need of judging the performances of each and every student is must and for this purpose, measurement is needed and that measurement is known as evaluation.
Education is a changing process that requires to be continuously evaluated. Evaluation is an element of education that is based upon the educational objectives and the learning experience. Evaluation is a systematic process of collecting, examining and interpreting information to determine the extent to which pupils are achieving instructional objectives.
Method of evaluation:
There are two methods of evaluation that is used in the teaching and learning evaluation process:
- Norm-Referenced Evaluation: It is a type of evaluation in which the performance of the students is measured by comparing the relation with a hypothetical average student.
- Criterion-Referenced evaluation: In the Criterion-Referenced test the performance of a student is measured against a predetermined learning standard. These tests are extensively used in higher education.
The need for Evaluation:
With the help of evaluation process ensures learning takes place.
- Evaluation process ensures teachers effectiveness in learning by setting student learning objectives instead of what a teacher will do.
- Evaluation process helps in making the learner-centered environment in the higher environment.
- Evaluation process helps in creating a knowledge-centered environment in the higher.
- Evaluation in teaching creates the assessment centred environment in the higher.
- Evaluation process in teaching-learning creates the community-centred environment within higher education.
Types of Assessment:
Usually, three kinds of assessment are used in the teaching-learning process. They are:
1. Formative assessment: This assessment is one of the most powerful tools of assessment for improving the understanding and performance of the students over a short period of time. In this type of assessment, the teacher comes to knows the result of the learners within a very short duration by conducting the written test, observing the behaviour of the students and provides quick feedback to the learners. With the help of quick feedback, learners change their behaviour and understanding. Teacher act as the coach here and it is an informal process.
2. Portfolio assessment: This assessment takes place occasionally over a long period of time. The project, written assignments, tests etc. are the tools of this assessment. In this assessment feedback to the learner is more formal and also provides opportunities for learners to re-demonstrate their understanding after the feedback has been understood and acted upon.
3. Summative assessment: This assessment can be done at the end of a year or term. Through this assessment, the teacher comes to know about the strength and weakness of the curriculum and instruction. The result of this assessment may take time to return to parents or students. Here feedback is very limited and provides no opportunity to improve it. The result of this assessment is used to compare the performance of a student with the standard or with a group of students.
Important paradigm in Assessment:
1. Assessment for learning: Assessment for learning focuses on where the learners are in learning, where they need to go and how best to get there. It occurs throughout the learning and sometimes it is also referred to as Formative Assessment.
2. Assessment of Learning: This assessment is also known as Summative Assessment. This assessment occurs when the teacher uses proofs of students learning for determining student’s achievement against goals or standards at the end of term or year.
3. Assessment as learning: In this assessment, student assesses their own performance and monitors their own learning and also uses the number of strategies to decide what they know and what they can do and how they use assessment for new learning.
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