1.1 Solar energy: Solar energy is a primary source of energy which directly get from the sun by capturing the solar radiation and converting it into another form of energy to perform various useful activities.
There are two ways of solar energy utilization:
- Conversion of solar energy into thermal energy
- Photovoltaic cells.
The conversion of solar energy into thermal energy can not done by using solar collectors, while in photovoltaic cells the direction sunlight is used to produced electricity.
- Photovoltaic (IV) cells convert sunlight property to direct current electricity.
- The inverting converts direct current into alternating current electricity.
- The electrical panel seconds power to be consumed within property as lights and in appliances.
- The distribution board supplies electricity to grid.
Advantages of solar energy:
- Solar energy is a clear, noise of second renewable energy source
- Very little maintenance is required to keep solar cell running as there are no moving parts in it.
- In the long term, there can be a high return on investment due to the amount of free energy a solar panel can produce.
Limitations of solar energy:
- Electricity generation depends entirely on the exposure to sunlight, this could be limited by climate.
- Solar power is used to charge batteries so that solar powered devices can be used at night.
Application of solar energy: Photovoltaic cell, solar thermal power generation.
Wind energy: Wind energy is the kinetic energy generated by virtue of the movement of large air masses caused by differential heating of the atmosphere by the sun.
Wind energy conversion system (WECS) is a machine which produces mechanical energy powered by wind energy that can be directly converted into electrical energy.
- The main components of a WECS include a wind turbine, a generator interconnected apparatus and control system.
- The wind rotates large turbine blades, which spins a generator shaft and generates electricity. The is electricity is used to charge batteries which can be connected to a power grid main power of building.
Advantage of wind energy
- Wind energy is a environment friendly source of energy available free of cost.
- If can be mad available easily in many off share, on shore and remote area. Therefore, it is helpful in supplying electricity to remote of rural areas.
- Power generation if cheaper
- It has low energy density
- At present, it does not seem to be economic for large scale generation.
Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)
- Ocean thermal energy conversions intake use of the temperature different between the surface water of the oceans and the depth of the oceans.
- The ocean the large amount of solar energy is stored by the tropical oceans, which is used to produce electricity.
- The OTEC can be used in tropical ocean where the temperature gradient is the highest amount 20°C on top and about 5°C at the depth of 1000 meters.
- In the oceans, the temperature different between surface of deep water is highest in the tropics with 20 to 25°C.
Principle of working:
The operation of OTEC plant is based upon thermodynamic in which if a heat surface is available at a high temperature and a heat sink at a lower temperature then the temperature differentiation can be utilized to run a prime moves, which can convert part of the heat taken from source into mechanical energy. The residual heat is dish
- The advantage of OTEC is that power is continuous, renewable and pollution free.
- A floating OTEC plant can generate power at mid sea and can be used to provide power for operations like off share mining of processing of manager modules.
Geothermal Energy (GE)
- GE is naturally occurring thermal energy found within crock formations.
- In the inner core of earth, there is a larger of hot of molten rock called (magma) which has temperature as high of 4000°C.
- The sources of this heat energy are magnetic or radioactive decay processes occur within the interior of the earth.
- In geothermal power plants water to be seeping into the under-ground overtime gains heat energy from the geothermal reservoir. This water is heated 4 then sent through a steam turbine where the thermal energy (heat) is converted into electricity through a generator. The next strip in the cycle is cooling the liquid & sending it back to the heat source.
- The injection wells ensure that the water is drawn up is to be returned to the geothermal reservoir where it regains the thermal energy and this cycle continues.
Advantages of GE
- This the most versatile & less polluting RE source.
- It is relatively expensive and delivers greater amount energy than other conventional or non-conventional energy sources.
- The power generation lovely are higher for direct use of such as space heating, geothermal heat pumps, industrial processes & enhanced oil recovery systems.
- Efficiency is low which is about 15% compared to possible fuel plants.
- Drilling operation is noisy.
- Large areas are required for extraction of geothermal energy.
- Energy can be extracted from the tides which are formed due to the gravitational effect of the sun and moon on the Earth. This gravitational force causes a periodic rise and fall of the water level of sea which can be used to generate electric power. Such type of energy is known as tidal energy.
- During the high tide, the height of the tide is above that of tidal basin and the turbine unit operates & produces power. During low tides, the height of the tide is lower than that of the tidal basin & water is allowed to flow out to drive or propel the turbine unit.
- Hydraulic turbine & generator are coupled to generate electricity. The tidal power plant requires a great tidal range and a suitable bay where a dam can be construct which will store water & release it during low tide to run a turbine.
Advantages: It is pollution free of energy.
- Tidal power plants do not require large area of valuable land, as they are on the bay or estuaries.
- It is available all-round the year.
- Low power production
- Complex design system
Other types of Energy Resources
- Non-renewable energy sources are fossil fuel sources that are found within the top layer of the Earth's crust. They range from volatile materials with low carbon-hydrogen ratio like methane to non-volatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal, etc.
- It is generally accepted that they are formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals by exposure to heat and pressure in the earth's crust over hundreds of millions of years. This is known as the biogenic theory and was first introduced by Georgios Agricola in 1556.
- Fossil fuels are non-renewable resources because they take millions of years to form and reserves are depleted much faster than the formation of new resources. These are also known as exhaustible sources of energy.
- The production and use of fossil fuels raises environmental concerns. A global movement towards the generation of renewable energy is therefore underway to meet increased energy demands.
- Energy conservation means reduction in energy consumption but without making any sacrifice in the quality or quantity of production. It refers to increase the production from a given amount of energy input by reducing losses Advantage and maximizing the efficiency.
- Even though energy conservation reduces energy services, it can result in improved environmental quality, national security, personal financial security, and higher saving.
- It is at the top of the sustainable energy hierarchy and also reduces costs by preventing future resource depletion.
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