List of Total High Courts in India – 25th, Recent High Courts of India

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

How many high courts are there in India? Currently, there are a total of 25 High courts in India across various states and union territories. High Court is the highest judicial body in any state or union territory. As per Article 214, it is mandatory for each state of India to have a High Court except for states that are mentioned in Article 231.

Every UPSC aspirant must know the list of high courts in India at their fingertips as it is an essential topic for Civil Service Examination. In this article, you shall find all the important information regarding high courts in India, their powers and functions along with other relevant details. Scroll on to find out!

Total High Courts in India

India has a total of 25 High Courts, each of which is detailed below. The High Court of India consists of one Chief Justice and several Justices appointed by the President of India taking the volume of work into consideration. Among the 25 High Courts, six of them can handle cases pertaining to multiple states or union territories as these high courts come under Article 231.

As per Article 231, there shall be a common high court of India for two or more states or union territories. It is imperative for UPSC aspirants to know the list of high courts in India as several questions, based on it, are asked under the General Awareness section. Steer through the article to learn the list of high courts in India.

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High Courts of India PDF

Downloading the high courts of India PDF and going through it regularly will help you memorize it for a longer period of time. The direct link to download the list of high courts in India PDF is mentioned below for your convenience.

Total High Courts in India PDF

For detailed information on the total high courts in India, get access to this PDF for absolutely free. Keep the high court’s PDF handy for future reference and final revision.

List of High Courts in India

On the recommendation of the Law Commission in 1858, the Parliament passed the Indian High Courts Act 1861, which proposed the creation of High Courts in lieu of the Supreme Court in the Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay Presidencies.

Today, India has 25 High Courts that serve as important pillars of the country’s judicial system. Some of which have jurisdiction over more than one state or union territory. The important information on high courts of India, like the year, territorial is provided in the table below:

List of High Courts in India
Year of Establishment High Court Act of Establishment Territorial Jurisdiction Seat and Bench
1862 Bombay Indian High Courts Act, 1861 Maharashtra, Dadra & Nagar. Haveli, Daman Diu, and Goa Seat: Mumbai

Bench: Panaji, Aurangabad, and Nagpur

1862 Kolkata Indian High Courts Act, 1861 West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar islands Seat: Kolkata

Bench: Port Blair

1862 Madras Indian High Courts Act, 1861 Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry Seat: Chennai

Bench: Madurai

1866 Allahabad Indian High Courts Act, 1861 Uttar Pradesh Seat: Allahabad

Bench: Lucknow

1884 Karnataka Mysore High Court Act, 1884 Karnataka Seat: Bengaluru

Bench: Dharwad and Gulbarga

1916 Patna Letters Patent issued by the then British Crown Rule Bihar Patna
1948 Guwahati Government of India Act, 1935 Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, and Arunachal Pradesh Seat: Guwahati

Bench: Kohima, Aizawl, and Itanagar

1949 Odisha Orissa High Court Ordinance, 1948 Odisha Cuttack
1949 Rajasthan Punjab High Court Ordinance, 1947 Rajasthan Seat: Jodhpur

Bench: Jaipur

1956 Madhya Pradesh Government of India Act, 1935 Madhya Pradesh Seat: Jabalpur

Bench: Gwalior and Indore

1958 Kerala States Reorganisation Act, 1956 Kerala & Lakshadweep Ernakulam
1960 Gujarat Bombay Reorganisation Act, 1960 Gujarat Ahmedabad
1966 Delhi Delhi High Court Act, 1966 Delhi Delhi
1971 Himachal Pradesh State of Himachal Pradesh Act, 1970 Himachal Pradesh Shimla
1975 Punjab & Haryana Punjab High Court Ordinance, 1947 Punjab, Haryana & Chandigarh Chandigarh
1975 Sikkim The 36th Amendment to the Indian Constitution Sikkim Gangtok
2000 Chattisgarh Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000 Chattisgarh Bilaspur
2000 Uttarakhand Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000 Uttarakhand Nainital
2000 Jharkhand Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000 Jharkhand Ranchi
2013 Tripura North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Acts (Amendment), 2012 Tripura Agartala
2013 Manipur North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012 Manipur Imphal
2013 Meghalaya North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) and Other Related Laws (Amendment) Act, 2012 Meghalaya Shillong
2019 Telangana Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 Telangana Hyderabad
2019 Andhra Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 Andhra Pradesh Amravati
2019 Jammu & Kashmir and Ladakh Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh

First High Court in India

The First High Court in India is the Calcutta High Court. It was established on 01 July 1862, following the enactment of the Indian High Courts Act of 1861. The High Court of Calcutta was followed by the High Courts of Bombay and Madras in 1862 and 1864, respectively.

These High Courts were established to replace the Supreme Courts that were functioning in these three Presidencies during the British colonial era. These courts were vested with extensive powers and jurisdiction over civil and criminal matters within their respective territories.

25th High Court in India

The Andhra Pradesh High Court is the 25th High Court in India. It is established on 1st January 2019, under the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act 2014. Earlier, this court was established on 05 December 1956, under the State Recognization Act 1956 which led to the formation of the Andhra Pradesh state by merging the Telugu-speaking areas of the erstwhile state of Madras with the state of Hyderabad.

However, due to the bifurcation of the state into Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, a separate High Court for Andhra Pradesh was established in 2019.

Common High Courts in India

There are 6 common high courts in India viz., Bombay high court, Madras high court, Kerala high court, Punjab and Haryana high court, Kolkata high court, and Guwahati high court. Their courts have jurisdiction over more than one state or UT. Take a look at the list of common high courts in India in the table below.

No of High Courts in India
Year Name Territorial Jurisdiction
1862 Bombay Maharashtra, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman, Diu, and Goa
1862 Kolkata West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Island
1862 Madras Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry
1948 Guwahati Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, and Arunachal Pradesh
1958 Kerala Kerala & Lakshadweep
1975 Punjab & Haryana Punjab, Haryana & Chandigarh

Biggest High Court in India

The Chhattisgarh High Court is the Biggest High Court in India. Located at Bodri village in Bilaspur, it was established on 01 November 2000 and has jurisdiction over the state of Chhattisgarh. This high court can have up to 22 judges, including 17 permanent judges and 5 additional judges. Thus, it is also the biggest high court in Asia.

However, the Allahabad High Court is considered as Biggest High Court in India in terms of the number of serving judges. It has a sanctioned strength of 160 judges and currently has 112 serving judges. It has jurisdiction over the state of Uttar Pradesh and has its principal seat in Allahabad with additional benches in Lucknow and Prayagraj.

Powers and Functions of the High Court of India

Since you are familiar with the list of high courts in India, you must be wondering about its roles and functions. High Courts in India are very powerful and have a lot of responsibility in the execution of law and order, checking the working of district courts, and implementing sections & constitution with the help of the executive in the state. Check the important functions of the high court in India:

  • A High Court may issue writs of habeas corpus, Mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto, and certiorari to uphold Fundamental Rights or for other reasons.
  • Supervises other courts: Every High Court in India has the authority to supervise all Courts and Tribunals within the regions over which it has jurisdiction.
  • Appoints District Judges: The Governor consults with the High Court to appoint District judges and then the final decision is announced. Additionally, it is reviewed when choosing candidates for other State Judicial Service positions.
  • Control over lower courts: The High Court has jurisdiction over district courts and courts below them, including the posting, promotion, and granting of leave to members of a State’s judicial service who occupy any position under that of the district judge.
  • Other original and appellate powers: The Codes of Civil and Criminal Procedure and the Letters of Patent grant the High Court original and appellate jurisdiction in civil and criminal issues.
  • Case transfer authority: The High Court may withdraw a case from the originally filed court if it determines that it involves a significant constitutional law question that must be resolved to resolve the case. Alternatively, it may decide the constitutional law question and return the case to the court it was originally filed, along with a copy of its decision.

List of High Court in India: Things to Remember

In the IAS exam, candidates need to write a comprehensive answer to score well in the exam. Therefore, here we present you with additional information on High Court in India.

Besides learning the list of high courts in India, you must remember these terminologies and pointers as it will clear your concepts and you will have a better grasp of the topic.

  • The President appoints the Chief Justice of the High Court after consultation with the Supreme Court Chief Justice and the State Governor.
  • A circuit bench is used in remote areas when there aren’t enough cases to warrant a full-fledged permanent bench.
  • Because of this, some justices visit certain regions once or twice a year to handle all the High Court appeals from that region.
  • One or more High Court justices who sit year-round at a place other than the High Court’s regular seat make up a permanent bench.
  • A matter is heard and decided by at least two judges on a division bench.

Total High Courts in India UPSC

Candidates must download Total High Courts in India UPSC PDF to know about the total number of high courts in India along with the list of high courts and their establishment year and jurisdiction zones. This will improve your UPSC Prelims exam preparation.

High courts of India are an important sub-topic that comes under the Indian Polity syllabus for UPSC. You should remember the structure of the judicial system as questions are also asked about the first Judge of the specific high court, the time period, salaries, services, etc.

High Courts of India MCQs

Question: Gujarat high court is located at which of the following place? (a) Surat, (b) Vadodara, (c) Ahmedabad, (d) Gandhinagar
Answer: Ahmedabad

Question: Which of the following is the most recent high court in India? (a) Manipur High Court, (b) Andhra Pradesh High Court, (c) Jharkhand High Court, (d) Chhattisgarh High Court
Answer: Andhra Pradesh High Court

Question: Who among the following administers the oath of office to a Judge of a high court? (a) The President, (b) The Vice-President, (c) The Governor of the state, (d) The Chief Justice of India
Answer: The Governor of the state

Question: The High Court has the jurisdiction under Article 226 for the enforcement of: (a) Child Rights, (b) Sanctioning Rights, (c) Civil Rights, (d) Fundamental Rights
Answer: Fundamental Rights

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