## What is JK Flip-Flop?

The JK Flip-Flop is a refinement of the S-R flipflop in which the S-R type's indeterminate (invalid) state is defined.

### JK Flip-Flop Circuit Diagram

The logic diagram of JK Flip-Flop with data input J and K ed with O and Q respectively to obtain S and R inputs that is:

### JK Flip-Flop Full Form

JK flip flop full form is Jack Kilby flip flop. It is named after its inventor Jack Kilby. They invented the integrated circuit in 1958.

## JK Flip-Flop Truth Table

The JK Flip-Flop truth table has the hold state, reset state, set state, and toggle state. As this is a refinement of SR flip flop, the truth table of SR flip flop is refined to make the truth table of jk flip flop. The truth table of the JK Flip-Flop has two inputs, J and K, Q_{n} denotes the current state_{,} and Q_{n+1} denotes the next state in the table given below:

## Excitation Table of JK Flip-Flop

The excitation table of the JK Flip-Flop has the current state denoted by Q_{n,} and the next state is denoted Q_{n+1}. It has the J and K inputs for each transition in the excitation table of the JK Flip-Flop are as follows:

- Case-A: When, Q
_{n}= 0 and Q_{n+ 1}= 0

This condition can happen with either J = 0 and K = 0 or J = 0 and K = 1 (Characteristic table)

Therefore, the desired output Q_{n+1}= 0 is obtained when J= 0 and K= X (don’t care). - Case-B: When, Q
_{n}= 0 and Q_{n+ 1}= 1

This can happen with either J = 1 and K = 0 or J= 1 and K= 1 (toggle condition), which means in the toggle mode a jk flip-flop has J= 1 and K= 1.

Therefore the desired output Q_{n+ 1}= 1 is obtained when J= 1 and K=X (don’t care). - Case-C: When, Q
_{n}= 1 and Q_{n+ 1}= 0

This can happen with either J=0 and K= 1 or J= 1 and K=1. - Therefore, the desired output Q
_{n+ 1}= 0 is obtained when J= X (don’t care) and K=1. - Case-D: When, Q
_{n}= 1 and Q_{n+ 1}= 1

This condition can happen with either J= 0 and K= 0 or J= 1 and K=0.

Thus, the desired output Q_{n+ 1}= 1 is obtained with J = X and K=0.

## Characteristic Table of JK Flip-Flop

The characteristic table of the JK Flip-Flop has the hold state, reset state, set state, and toggle state. The characteristic table has the input J and K, Qn and Q_{n+1} denote the current state denotes the next state in the characteristic table given below:

## JK Flip-Flop Characteristic Equation

The characteristic equation of the JK Flip-Flop from the above characteristic table that has the hold state, reset state, set state, and toggle state is as follows using the three variable k-map. In the k-map, the column K'Qn is common, and the JQ' is common. So, the characteristic equation is:

Also, check: Difference Between Flip-flop and Latch

## Race Around Condition in JK Flip-Flop

The difficulty of both the inputs to be '1' in the case of S-R of the invalid state is eliminated by a JK Flip-Flop using feedback connections from output to the input, as shown below. However, the condition when (level triggered) J = K = 1 is not yet perfect,

Consider J = K = 1 and Q_{n} = 0 and a clock (CLK) is applied. After a propagation delay time t_{pd} through two NAND gates, the output will toggle to Q_{n} = 1. Since this is feedback to the inputs, the output will toggle back to Q_{n} = 0 after another delay of t_{pd (FF)}.

Thus, as long as the clock pulse is present (tow), the output will toggle at every t_{pd(FF),} and at the end of the clock pulse, the value of Q_{n} is uncertain. This situation will continue as long as the low clock pulse width is longer than the flipflop propagation delay (t_{pd}). Such a situation is referred to as the "race around condition".

Thus, the "Race around condition" will occur when

(i) J = K = 1

(ii) When t_{pd (FF)} < t_{pw}

(iii) When the level trigger is applied.

One way to avoid this problem is to maintain t_{pw }< T_{pd(FF)} < T. A most practical method for overcoming this problem is the use of the "Master-slave configuration".

## Master-Slave JK Flip-Flop

An "M-S FF" is constructed from 2 FFs (a MASTER and a SLAVE) and an 'INVERTER.'

- On the rising edge of CLK (that is, +ve edge CLK PULSE), the control inputs are used to determine the output of the "MASTER." When the CLK goes LOW (i.e., -ve edge CLK PULSE), the state of Master is transferred to the "SLAVE," whose outputs are Q and Q.'
- In the "M-S FF," the output is entirely dependent upon the output of SLAVE-FF.

### Logic Diagram of Master-Slave JK Flip-Flop

### Operation

- When the clock pulse CLK is 0, the output of the inverter is 1. Since the clock input of the slave is 1, the flipflop is enabled, and output Q is equal to Y, while õ is equal to 7. The master flipflop is disabled because CLK = 0.
- When the pulse becomes 1, the information at the external R and S inputs is transmitted to the master Flip-Flop. In the slave flipflop, the clock is zero because the inverter output is zero. That is, a slave flipflop is isolated.
- When the pulse returns to the master flip-flop is isolated, preventing external inputs from affecting it. The slave flip-flop then goes to the same state as the master flip-flop.

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