- Processes executing concurrently in the operating system may be either independent or cooperating processes.
- A process is independent if it can't affect or be affected by the other processes executing in the system.
- Any process that shares data with other processes is a cooperating process.
- Advantages of process cooperation are information sharing, computation speed up, modularity and convenience to work on many tasks at the same time.
- Cooperating processes require an Inter-Process Communication (IPC) mechanism that will allow them to exchange data and information.
- There are two fundamental models of IPC:
- Shared memory: In the shared memory model, a region of memory that is shared by a cooperating process is established. Process can then exchange information by reading and writing data to the shared region.
- Message passing: In the message passing model, communication takes place by means of messages exchanged between the cooperating processes.
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