Geography Notes For UPSC Exam 2023

By Ritesh|Updated : September 14th, 2022

Geography Notes for UPSC are essential to cover the Geography part of the UPSC Syllabus. Every year, a significant number of questions are asked from the Geography NCERT Notes for UPSC. The Geography Notes for UPSC covers all three major sections of the subject, namely Indian Geography, Physical Geography, and World Geography.

This article focuses on Geography Notes for UPSC, its micro-topics, strategy to cover Geography NCERT Notes, and the booklist one should refer to for Geography Notes. For the ease of the candidates, the Geography NCERT Notes for UPSC PDF has also been attached at the end of the article.

Table of Content

Geography NCERT Notes for UPSC

Geography Notes are always lengthy because they cover a significant part of the Geography Syllabus included in the UPSC Syllabus. The topics of Geography need revision at regular intervals without fail, as many concepts are technical and conceptual. The approach to covering Geography Notes is simple. One should give the first reading of the topics as one is reading a book. The following reading should proceed with note-taking and revision. If any topic is in the news, that value addition should be through the Current Affairs section.

For UPSC Prelims, one must understand that it is the trickiest stage of the UPSC Exam. In the UPSC Prelims Question Paper, one can find a significant chunk of questions from Indian Geography, Physical Geography, and World Geography Notes.

The approach to covering notes lies in simultaneously covering the UPSC Prelims Syllabus and UPSC Mains Syllabus for Geography.

For UPSC Mains, one needs to go in-depth about the topic. A critical analysis of each topic is needed. Mains is about how much a candidate retains and presents at the examination.

Physical Geography Notes for UPSC PDF

Physical geography is the study of the earth's surface. Knowing about Earth's physical geography is important as it helps to understand the natural processes of Earth and how they affect the distribution of resources and the conditions of human settlement.

The topics that one should study while covering the Physical Geography Notes include:

  • Theories of development of the Universe
  • Earth Evolution
  • Earth’s Interior
  • Geology and Rock system
    • Minerals
    • Major Elements of the Earth’s Crust
    • Rocks (Aggregate of Minerals)
  • Geomorphic Processes
    • Earth’s Surface
    • Endogenic Forces
    • Exogenic Forces
  • Earthquakes and Volcanism
    • Earthquakes
    • Volcanism
  • Distribution of Continents & Oceans
    • Theories
    • Continental Drift Theory
    • Isostasy
    • Sea Floor Spreading
    • Forces of Drifting
    • Post-Drift Studies
    • Conventional Current Theory
    • Mapping of the Ocean Floor
    • Plate Tectonics
    • Plate Boundaries – Divergent – Convergent – Transform
    • Indian Plate
  • Landforms and their evolution
  • Landforms across the world
  • Hydrosphere
  • Submarine Relief Features
    • Oceans
    • Relief of the Ocean floor
    • Divisions of the ocean floor
  • Minor relief features
  • Temperature and Salinity
  • Waves, Ocean Currents, Tides
  • Marine Resources
  • Ocean Deposits and Corals
    • Terrigenous Deposits
    • Volcanic Deposits
    • Biotic Abiotic Deposits
    • Coral Reefs
    • Great Barrier Reef
  • Atmosphere
  • Inversion of Temperature
  • Winds and Pressure belts
  • Air Mass, Fronts, Cyclones, and Jet Stream
    • Air mass & fronts
    • Cyclones
    • Thunderstorms
    • Tornadoes
    • Monsoons
    • Fronts
  • Climatic Zones of the World
    • Koppen's Classification Climatic Zones
    • World Climate
  • Soil Characteristics
  • Vegetation resources

Download Physical Geography Notes for UPSC PDF here!

Indian Geography Notes for UPSC PDF

The Indian Geography aspect under the Geography Notes for UPSC includes the aspects of both the Geography of India and the Economic geography of the world, which affects it in one way or another.

The major topics one should under this section include:

Indian Geography for UPSC

  • Physiography of India
  • Geological Region
  • Location
  • Physiographic Sub-Units
  • Mountain System
  • Drainage System
  • Climate
    • Factors influencing the climate of India
    • Monsoon
    • Mechanism of the Monsoon
    • El Nino and La Nina
  • Soils in India
  • Natural Vegetation
  • Population
  • Settlements and Urbanization
  • Land Resource
  • Mineral Resource
  • Agriculture Basic Terminologies
  • Recent Developments in Agriculture Field
    • NITI Aayog proposed the idea of taxation of agricultural income
    • Removing agricultural commodities from the essential commodities Act: NITI Aayog
    • Feminization of Agriculture
    • e-auction portal: e-Rakam for selling agricultural produce
    • “AGRI-UDAAN” – Food and agri-business acceleration 2.0 to bring startup revolution
    • APEDA (Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority Act)
    • SMAM (Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanization)
    • Jute-ICARE Project
    • Project CHAMAN
    • Doubling the farmers' income: Ashok Dalwai Committee
    • RKVY-RAFTAAR
    • Agro Irradiation Centers
    • Agricultural Marketing and Farm Friendly Reforms Index
    • National Food Security Act
    • Digitization and Agriculture
    • Direct Benefit Transfer in Fertilizer Sector
    • Draft Regulation on Fortification of Foods
    • Law Commission Recommendation on Food Laws
    • Concept of Modern Terminal Markets
    • Animal Husbandry, Dairying, and Fisheries
    • e-Pashuhaat Portal
    • Schemes of Bio-Tech Kisan and Cattle Genomics
    • RashtriyaGokul Mission
    • Mission Fingerling
    • Ornamental Fishing
    • Agricultural Science Congress
    • RubSiS
    • Ethanol Blending
    • National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources
    • Amendments to the NABARD Act, 1981
    • Revenue Insurance Scheme for Plantation Crops
    • Neem Coating of Urea
    • National Agriculture Market
  • Productivity of Crops and conditions for growth
  • Industry
  • Transport
  • Recent Development in Transport Sector
    • Union Ministry of shipping is planning to expand Logistics Data Bank (LDB)
    • Railways India Development Fund
    • National Infrastructure Investment Fund
    • Defense Innovation Fund
    • Flexi Fare Method in Railway
    • Rail Cadre Management
    • TRI-NETRA in Railways
    • National Rail Plan 2030
    • India’s First Caterpillar Train
    • Green corridor concept
    • Made in India ‘Medha’ train
    • Antyodaya Express
    • Smart Railway Station
    • Yatri Mitra Seva
    • National Highways Interconnectivity
    • Vehicle Fleet Modernization Programme
    • Transit Oriented Development Policy
    • Logistic Efficiency Enhancement Programme
    • Indian Bridge Management System
    • National Road Safety Policy
    • TARANG
    • E-trans
    • DEEP (Discovery of Efficient Electricity Price)
    • GARV II APP
    • Trading of Energy Saving Certificates
    • Powers for all 24x7
    • Draft National Electricity Plan
    • Habitat Commitment Index
  • Recent developments in Industrial Sector
    • Chennai-Bangalore Industrial Corridor
    • Apex Corridor Developmental Authority
    • Tamra Portal
    • Mining Surveillance System
    • Coal Mitra
    • M-SIPS for Electronic Sector
    • Indian Enterprise Development Service
    • Trade Receivables Discounting System
    • SME Business Environment Index

Economic Geography of the World for UPSC

  • Demography and Census
  • Human Development
  • Economic Activities
  • International Trade
    • Important aspects of International Trade
    • Types of International Trade
    • Case of Free Trade
    • WTO – World Trade Organisation and Regional Trade Blocs
    • Gateways of International Trade
  • Settlement
    • Types and Patterns of settlements
    • Rural Settlements
    • Urban Settlements
    • Rural-Urban Migration
    • Emergence of Slums
    • Inclusive Cities/Smart cities

Download Indian and Economic Geography of the World Notes for UPSC PDF here!

World Geography Notes for UPSC PDF

The study of World Geography focuses on the relationships among people, places, and environments that result in geographic patterns on the earth. One must understand the concepts of World Geography for the upcoming IAS Exam.

The broad topics that are covered in World Geography Notes for UPSC include:

  • Continents Countries and Cities
    • Continents and Important Cities of the World
    • Important Cities Situated on the Banks of Rivers
    • Changed Names of Some Cities, States, and Countries
    • Distinctive Names of Countries/Towns— Geographical Epithets
    • Regional Grouping of Countries of the World
    • Economic Classification of Countries of the World
  • Location in NEWS
  • Govardhan Ecovillage
  • City livability index
  • Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat
  • Yethinahole Project
  • SMARTGRAM
  • Kaladan project in Myanmar
  • Doklam plateau
  • Gilgit-Baltistan
  • SCO Summit-Astana
  • Bosporus strait
  • Nathu-La
  • Lisbon
  • Mahadayi tribunal
  • Jaravas
  • Bengaluru declaration
  • SASEC road connectivity
  • Doklam
  • dams bottom trawling
  • Hambantota Port
  • World Petroleum Congress, Turkey
  • Kaleshwaram project
  • Mega food park in Kapurthala
  • Assam’s disturbed area tag
  • North Koel project
  • BIMSTEC
  • Conservation of Pagodas to Bagan
  • Bridge over Mechi River
  • Pangong Lake
  • World’s most liveable city
  • Asia Africa Corridor
  • Xiamen declaration
  • Sir Creek
  • Chakma, Majong Refugees Rohingya
  • Cleanest Iconic place- Meenakshi temple
  • OBOR
  • Hambantota
  • Chahbahar Port
  • Gwadar Port
  • National Waterway – 4
  • Polavaram project
  • UNESCO creative cities network
  • Singapore Changi Naval base
  • India in Antarctica
  • Concept of Resilient Cities
  • Sericulture
  • Blizzards
  • New tectonic plate discovered
  • Report on Palaeo Channel of North West India
  • Cyclones in News
  • Growth v/s Development
  • Approaches to Human Development
  • Human Development Index

Download World Geography Notes for UPSC PDF here!

How to Prepare Geography Notes for the IAS Exam

Geography is an essential part of the UPSC Exam, and covering the Geography Notes should not be missed during the UPSC Preparation Strategy. To cover Geography for UPSC, one can refer to the following books:

  • Refer to NCERT: To have a firm grasp of Geography, one should refer to the NCERT Books to make a solid foundation.
  • Follow Preferred Books: After completing the NCERTs, one can refer to the UPSC Books on Geography to cover all the relevant micro-topics. One can also refer to some of the Geography Books for UPSC to make notes on the three sections of Geography for UPSC- Indian Geography, Physical Geography, and World Geography.

Below we have compiled a list of all the highly recommended Geography Books for UPSC to compile the notes:

  • Certificate Physical And Human Geography by Goh Cheng Leong
  • Geography of India by Majid Husain
  • Human Geography by Majid Hussain
  • Oxford Student Atlas for India by Oxford University Press.

One should also practice UPSC Previous Year Questions to understand the UPSC Exam Pattern.

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FAQs on Geography Notes for UPSC

  • To take or cover Geography Notes for UPSC, one should cover the three broad sections under it, Indian Geography, Physical Geography, and World Geography. All three sections are equally important from the UPSC Prelims and UPSC Mains's points of view. While taking Notes for Geography, one should keep in mind to leave spaces and margins, so that quick mindmaps or diagrams can be drawn for better understanding.

  • Covering the NCERT Books for Geography forms a firm and solid base for understanding geography concepts. If a candidate has given adequate time and concentration to NCERTs and some of the basic recommended UPSC Books, it would be sufficient for him/her to make Geography Notes for UPSC easy.

  • Physical Geography Notes for UPSC is an important topic for IAS Preliminary and Main Exam.

  • Geography is one of the main subjects of the UPSC Civil Services Examination, and questions from World Geography are asked in both Prelims and Mains of the IAS Exam. One should go through the World Geography Notes for UPSC once to cover World geography.

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