BPSC Mains Sociology 2022: How to Prepare, Books, Syllabus, Tips and Tricks

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

Sociology is a popular subject in the selection of the optional subjects in the BPSC Mains Exam. Sociology requires more understanding and interpretation. 


The candidates who will qualify the BPSC Prelims exam will be eligible to appear in the BPSC Mains exam.  In the BPSC mains exam there are a total of 34 optional subjects and the candidates can choose any of them. Sociology is one such optional subject. Sociology is a popular subject among the aspirants because of its easy syllabus, high scoring and fascinating subject. 

The sociology optional subject in BPSC mains exam syllabus has been set by Bihar Public Service Commission (BPSC).

Stages of BPSC Exam 

The BPSC exam has three stages. Candidates would have to clear each subject to be eligible to be appointed to the post of BPSC officer. 

1. Prelims exam

2. Mains exam

3. Interview

The candidates who are preparing Sociology for BPSC mains exam must follow the following concept:

  • Depth analysis of subjects. 
  • The maturity of the subject is reflected in its answer writing.
  • The examiner is also attracted to the detailed explanations of the subject.


There are two sections of the Sociology for BPSC mains syllabus in the optional paper.

  1. General Sociology
  2. Society of India


General Sociology

  1. Scientific study of social phenomena- The emergence of sociology, their relation to other branches of education, their scope and related concepts, study of science and social behaviour, problems of accuracy, reliability and validity, scientific method and scientific language, their meaning and purpose , Types, Elements and Characteristics, Social Research Structure, Methods of Data Collection and Fact Analysis, Attitude Measurement Problems and Technological Styles (Scales), Cause Concept of RM MacIver.
  2. Pioneers in the field of Sociology – Contribution, Theoretical Beginnings and Theory of Evolution, Spencer and Morgan, Historical Sociology, Karl Marx, Max Beber and Pevm Srokin, Functionalism E. Durkheim, Pareto, Parsons and Merton, Conflict Theory, Gumplowitz, Dahrendorf and Kozer, Modern Schools of Sociology, Absolutistic and Reducing Sociology, Medium Level Theory, Regulation Theory.
  3. Social Structure and Social Organization – Concepts and Types, Ideologies Related to Social Structure, Structural Functionalism, Marxist Theory, Elements of Social Structure, Individuals and Society, Social Interaction, Social Group Concepts and Types, Social Levels and Roles, Their Determinants and Types , Different dimensions of role in simple and complex societies, role conflict, social network, concept and type, culture and personality conformity and concept of social control, means of social control, minority group, majority and minority relations.
  4. Social stratification and mobility – Concepts of social stratification, effects and types, inequality and stratification, basis and magnitude of stratification, ideologies related to stratification, functionalism and struggle ideology, social stratification and social mobility, culturization and westernization, types of mobility, intergenerational Mobility, upward mobility vs. horizontal mobility, patterns of mobility.
  5. Family, Marriage and Kinship- Structure, Functions and Types, Social Changes and Age and Change in Male and Female Roles, Marriage, Change in Family and Kinship, Importance of Family in Industrial Society.
  6. Formal organization- Elements of formal and informal organisations, bureaucratic functions, functions and characteristics, bureaucratic and political development, political, social and political participation, various forms of participation, democratic and authoritarian forms of participation, voluntary congregation.
  7. Economic System- Concepts of property, Social model of division of labour, Different types of regulation, Social aspect of pre-industrial and industrial economy, Industrialization and change in political, educational, religious, family-constitutional areas, determinants of economic development and their results.
  8. Political System- Concept, Elements and Types of Political System, Functions of Political System, Problems under Political System, Political Processes with respect to Individual Groups, Political Organizations, Political Parties and other means, Concepts of Power, Authority and Legitimacy, Basis and types, concept of stateless society, political socialization versus political participation, characteristics of state, power of elite class and masses under democratic and authoritarian political system, political parties and voting, heroism, democratic system and democratic stability.
  9. Educational system- Concept and purpose of education, trend of education, effect of idealism and pedantry, importance of education in the context of society, international relations, democracy and nationalism, new inclinations of education, various means in education and socialization, family , Role of school, society, state and religion, Population education concepts and elements, Cultural rebirth, Theoretical adoption, Social stratification, Role of education as a means of mobility and modernization.
  10. Religion – Religious facts, concepts of sacred and impure, social functions and non-functions of religion, witchcraft, religion and science, secularization and social change.
  11. Social Change and Development – Economic, biological and technological factors of social change, evolutionary functionalism and conflict theory of social change, social change, modernization and progress, democratization, equality and social justice, social reconstruction.


Indian Society

(1) Indian Society- Characteristics of traditional Hindu social organization, socio-cultural changes of different times, influence of Buddhism, Islam and modern West on Indian society, factors of continuity and change.

(2) Social stratification- Caste system and its transformations, Economic, structural and cultural views with respect to caste, Origin of caste system, Inequality between Hindu and non-Hindu castes and problems of social justice, Caste mobility, Casteism, Backward castes vs. Backward Class, scheduled castes and untouchability, changes in scheduled castes, abolition of untouchability, class structure of industrial and agricultural society, changing orientations of inter-caste relations of Bihar under Mandal commission and security policy.

(3) Family, marriage and kinship- regional diversity in kinship system and their socio-cultural co-relationship, changing aspects of kinship, joint family system, its structural and practical aspects, its changing forms and disintegration, various ethnic groups, economic and caste classes In marriage, their changing nature in future, laws and socio-economic effects on family and marriage, impact of changes, generation gap and youth dissatisfaction, changing status of women, women and social development, inter-caste marriage in Bihar, causes and consequences.

(4) Economic system- Host system and its effect on traditional society, Market economy and its social consequences, Occupational diversification and social structure, Professional trade unions, Social determinants of economic development and their consequences, Economic inequalities, Exploitation and Corruption, Bihar Reasons for the economic backwardness of Bihar, the potential for economic development of Bihar, the correlation between economic growth and social development in the context of Bihar.

(5) Political system- Functions of democratic political system in traditional society, political parties and their social structure, origin of political elite and their social attachment, decentralization of power, political participation, nature of voting in Bihar, voting system in Bihar Compatibility of caste, community and economic factors, its changing dimensions, functions, functions and features of Indian bureaucracy, bureaucracy and political development in India, sovereign society, social and political sources of mass movement in India.

(6) Education system- society and education, educational inequalities and changes, education and social mobility, problems of women’s education, backward classes and scheduled castes, due to educational backwardness in Bihar, unplanned in Bihar in the context of traditional and modern Functions and non-functional aspects of thriving institutions. Problems and prospects of higher education in Bihar, new education policies, mass education.

(7) Religion – Population volume, geographical distribution and neighborhood, lifestyle of major religious communities, inter-religious interactions and their publication in the form of conversion, level of minority, communication and

secularism, Buddhism of various religious movements on caste system of India- Effects of Jain-Christian-Islam Great Samaj and Arya Samaj movements, Westernization and modernization in Bihar, factors related to joint and separation, effect of increasing interrelationship of religion and politics on Indian social organization.

(8) Tribal Society – Major tribal communities of India, their distinctive features, tribes and castes, their cultural exchange and integration, social, economic and political problems of the tribes of Bihar, for tribal welfare. Different ideologies, their constitutional and state security, tribal movement in India, Tana Bhagat movement, Birsa movement and Jharkhand movement, their important place in the development of tribes.

(9) Rural Social System and Community Development – Social and Cultural Dimensions of Rural Community, Traditional Power Structure, Democratization and Leadership, Poverty, Indebtedness and Bonded Labor, Consequences of Land Reforms, Community Development Plan Programs and other Planned Development Programs and Green Revolution New policies for rural development.

(10) Urban Social Organization – Traditional factors of social organization; Such as kinship, continuity of caste and religion and their changes in the context of the city, social stratification and mobility in urban communities, ethnic diversity and community integration, urban neighbourhood, differences between cities and villages in demographic and socio-cultural features and their social consequences.

(11) Population Dynamics – Theories of Population Growth – Malthus, Biological Demographic Change, Majority Population, Socio-cultural aspects of population structure (sex, age, marital status), birth rate, death rate and factors of migration, Population policy in India need, population and other determinant facts, social, cultural and economic determinants of population and their role in rejection of family planning process in India, place of family planning program in first to eighth five year plans, population education, concept, objectives, aspects, Means and the art of population education.

(12) Social Change and Modernization- Role, Problem of conflict, Youth dissatisfaction, Generation gap, Changing status of women, Major sources of social change and main sources of resistance to change, Influence of the West, Reformist movement, Social movement , Industrialization and Urbanization, Pressure Groups, Elements of Planned Change, Five Year Plans, Legislative and Administrative Measures – Process of Change – Sanskritisation, Westernization and Modernization, Means of Modernization, Public Relations Means and Education, Problem of Change and Modernization, Structural Anomalies and Disruptions Current social evils- corruption and favoritism, smuggling-black money.

Best Books for Sociology Optional

There are some books listed below for better preparation of Sociology for BPSC optional:

Sr. No. Book Name Author/Publication
1. Sociology- Pratiyogita Sandarbh Publication Rakesh Kumar & Mahesh Prasad
2. Samkaleen Bhartiya Samaj Nadeem Hasnain
3. Social problem and Society of India Ram Ahuja

Candidates Who Selected Sociology as Optional Subject in BPSC Mains

Check out the year wise trend like how many candidates selected Sociology as optional over how many selected:

BPSC Successful in Written Exam Finally Selected
53-55th 148 63
56-59th 131 60
60-62th 216

Preparation Tips for BPSC Mains Exam 2022

There are some points keep in mind for better preparation of exam listed below:

  • Study the NCERT books to understand the basics of Sociology.
  • Make proper notes according to the syllabus.
  • Daily answer writting practice improves your writting skills.
  • Revision of topics everyday that may help you remember.
  • Practice the previous year question papers to know the pattern of questions.
  • The 2nd section of Sociology is dynamics so read the daily news and check further updates.


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