Why was the Non-Cooperation Movement started in 1920 and why was the movement called off in 1922?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 9th, 2023

The Non-Cooperation Movement started in 1920 after the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and the movement was called off in 1922 due to the Chauri Chaura event. On September 5, 1920, the Indian National Congress (INC), led by Mahatma Gandhi, launched the Non-Cooperation Movement. The Non-Cooperation program was introduced by the party during a Congress session in Calcutta in September 1920. From September 1920 to February 1922, the Non-Cooperation Movement is said to have existed. It marked the beginning of a new era in the history of the Indian liberation struggle.

Reason behind the Start and End of Non-Cooperation Movement

The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre inspired the Non-Cooperation Movement, which was later halted by the Chauri Chaura tragedy in 1922. Mahatma Gandhi was a major proponent of the Non-Cooperation movement. In March 1920, he issued a manifesto outlining the movement’s nonviolent noncooperation stance. Gandhi wished for everyone to do the following through this manifesto:

  • Adopt swadeshi values.
  • Take up Swadeshi customs like hand spinning and weaving.
  • Work to have untouchability eliminated from society

Read: What were the Effects of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre?

Effects of Non-Cooperation Movement

Essentially, the movement was a nonviolent protest against the British Indian government. As a form of protest, Indians were encouraged to renounce their titles and resign from their positions in local government.

People were urged to remove their children from institutions and universities that are run by the government or receive funds from the government. People were urged to stop buying imported goods and use exclusively made-in-India products. People were urged to stay away from voting in the Legislative Council elections.

  • No one was allowed to enlist in the British Army.
  • It was also intended for the people that they would stop paying taxes if the above measures did not yield the desired results.
  • The Congress also called for self-government or Swarajya.
  • Only completely non-violent methods will be used to enforce requests.
  • The non-cooperation campaign marked a turning point in the independence movement as it signaled the initial willingness of Congress to abandon constitutional measures in favor of self-government.
  • According to Gandhiji, if this campaign is carried to its end, Swaraj will be achieved in a year.
  • After the Chauri Chaura tragedy in February 1922, Gandhiji decided to end the campaign.
  • During a fight between police and agitation protesters in Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh, a violent mob torched a police station, killing 22 policemen.

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