What are the Four Oldest Civilizations?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 9th, 2023

The four oldest civilizations in the world are Mesopotamia and Egypt in the Middle East, the Indus Valley Civilization in South Asia (in what are now the regions of Pakistan and India), the Huang He (Yellow River) valley in East Asia (China), and the Island of Crete in the Aegean Sea and Central America. The four oldest civilizations in the world arose in the Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, and Central America.

Four Oldest Civilizations

Although these civilizations existed in different parts of the world, they had many things in common. To learn more about the four oldest civilizations in the world and some of the common occurrences in them, see the information below.

  • The world’s four oldest civilizations: Mesopotamia and Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization, China, and the island of Crete, had many similar developments.
  • These civilizations were settling in different parts of the world, but the pace of development was somewhat similar. We have discussed some common developments here.

Ongoing general development in these civilizations included the invention of scripts, the construction of cities, the use of metals, the domestication of animals, and the development of class systems within their social structures.

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