What is the Difference Between Harappan and Mesopotamian Civilization?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

The difference between Harappan and Mesopotamian civilization was that the Harappan civilization was ruled by traders, whereas a king ruled the Mesopotamian civilization. The Harappan civilization is the first civilization in the Indian subcontinent to have an ‘urban culture’. The Harappan civilization was more of a matriarchal society, which is evident from the existence of statues of female deities. In contrast, Mesopotamian civilization was patriarchal, giving men more power.

Difference Between Harappan and Mesopotamian Civilization

Mesopotamia and Indus Valley Civilization (Harappa civilization) can be known as contemporary civilizations as there was proof of trade practices between the two civilizations. The major difference between Harappan and Mesopotamian Civilization is as follows:

Harappan Civilization Mesopotamian Civilization
People lived in small village areas People lived in cities and towns
The houses were constructed to the East of the citadel The houses were constructed around distinct palaces and temples
Matriarchial society Patriarchal society
No special places of worship like temples were found Temples were built for worship
Ruled by traders Ruled by a priest-king
Invented measurement and weighing system Invented the first wheel
The trade happened for things like jewelry, cotton, art, and beads. Traded precious stones.

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