Consumer Protection Act 2019: Salient Features, Objectives, COPRA 2019 Notes PDF

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

The Consumer Affairs, Food, & Public Distribution Minister, Ram Vilas Paswan, introduced the Consumer Protection Act 2019 as a substitute for COPRA 1986 on July 8, 2019, in the Lok Sabha. On July 30, 2019, the Lok Sabha approved it, and on August 6, 2019, the Rajya Sabha also approved it. The Consumer Protection Act 2019 was signed into law on August 9 and published in the Gazette of India after receiving the president’s approval. The Act went into effect on July 20, 2020, however, some of its sections, such as the one creating the Central Consumer Protection Authority, started taking effect on July 24, 2020.

By setting the standards for transparency, the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act 2019 are designed to give customers more control. A new draught of the “advertising code,” which protects consumers against deceptive marketing, was announced by the government in September 2020. The Consumer Protection Act 2019 establishes authorities for the prompt and efficient administration and resolution of consumer disputes, as well as for matters related to or incidental to the Act’s stated objective of protecting consumer interests.

Definition of Customer in Consumer Protection Act 2019

The Consumer Protection Act 2019 defines a consumer under Section 2(7). It states that a consumer is somebody who purchases products or services. You are not considered a consumer if you purchase goods or services for resale or a business.

Consumer Protection Act 2019 PDF Notes

Unlike the Consumer Protection Act of 1986, this definition encompasses internet transactions. It is carried out to keep up with developing technology and expand online selling and advertising.

Consumer Protection Act 2019 – Rights of Consumer

According to the Consumer Protection Act 2019, consumers have six rights which are as follows:

  • Protection from products and services that endanger life and property.
  • Protection from products and services that risk property and human life.
  • To have access to various products or services at affordable costs.
  • Information about a product’s qualities, costs, and purity will help protect you from unscrupulous practices.
  • Access to a variety of goods and services at affordable pricing.
  • Assurance that customer interests are represented in relevant forums.
  • Combating exploitation and unjust business practices.
  • To have consumer assurances assured.

Salient Features of Consumer Protection Act 2019

The new Consumer Protection Act has modified the meaning of “consumer”. According to the Act, a person who uses the services or purchases any good for personal use is referred to as a consumer. It’s important to note that a person is not regarded as a consumer if they purchase a good or use a service for resale or commercial purposes. This definition of the Consumer Protection Act 2019 includes offline and online transactions such as those made through teleshopping, direct sales, or multi-level marketing. Some salient features of the Consumer Protection Act 2019 are as follows:

Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA):

  • The Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA), which would serve as a regulatory body, is proposed to be established by the Consumer Protection Act 2019.
  • Consumer rights disputes involving unfair practices, false advertising, and violations of those rights will be governed by the CCPA, which will also defend, promote, and uphold such rights.
  • The wide-ranging authority would be granted to CCPA.
  • The CCPA will be able to take sub-divisional actions, recall items, order the price of goods or services to be reimbursed, revoke licenses, issue fines, and bring class-action lawsuits.
  • The CCPA will have a division dedicated to conducting independent investigations into infringements of consumer protection laws.

Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission:

  • The salient features of the Consumer Protection Act 2019 mandated that Consumer Disputes Redressal Commissions handle consumer complaints at the national, state, and district levels. As per the established rules, the State Commissions will provide the Central Government with information on vacancies, disposal, the status of cases, and other items, quarterly.

Under the Consumer Protection Act 2019, CDRCs accept the following types of complaints:

  • Excessive or misleading billing.
  • Unfair or limiting business tactics.
  • Sale of potentially life-threatening goods and services.
  • Sale of faulty products or services.
  • The Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission Rules state that lawsuits up to Rs. 5 lahks can be filed without paying fees.

Online Complain Submission:

  • Another important feature of the Consumer Protection Act 2019 is that it allows consumers to lodge complaints with the consumer forum that has jurisdiction over them and is situated near their residence or employment. This is in contrast to the previous requirement, which required the consumer to lodge a complaint at the store where the item was purchased or the address of the seller’s registered office.
  • Additionally, the new Consumer Protection Act includes provisions that allow consumers to submit complaints electronically and conduct hearings and/or examinations of parties through videoconferencing.
  • Additionally, consumers won’t need legal counsel to handle their complaints.

Disciplinary Actions & Product Liability:

  • The Consumer Protection Act 2019 introduced the concept of product liability. In the future, compensation for harm or loss brought on by subpar products or services will be the responsibility of the manufacturer, product service provider, or product seller.
  • The product seller, service provider, and manufacturer are all covered by this clause for any compensation claims. E-commerce platforms would also be considered product sellers.

Penalties for False Advertising:

  • The CCPA may fine a manufacturer or even an endorser for making a false or deceptive advertisement. Additionally, the Consumer Protection Act 2019 allows CCPA to imprison them.

Provision for Alternative Dispute Resolution:

  • As an alternative dispute resolution method, mediation is provided by the Consumer Protection Act 2019. There will be a stringent deadline established in the guidelines for mediation.
  • According to the recently unveiled regulations, a Consumer Commission will send a complaint for mediation whenever there is potential for an early resolution and the parties consent. The mediation will take place in one of the Mediation Cells that the Consumer Commissions will set up. There won’t be an appeal against the mediation-based settlement.

Unfair Business Practices:

  • The Consumer Protection Act has also empowered the government to take action against deceptive business practices.
  • The Act adopts a broad definition of unfair trade practices, which includes disclosing personally identifiable information provided by customers in trust unless required by any other legislation.

The Central Consumer Protection Council:

  • The Central Government is given the authority to create a Central Consumer Protection Council by the Consumer Protection Act 2019. It will serve as a consumer problems advisory council.
  • According to the Central Consumer Protection Council Rules, the Union Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food, and Public Distribution would serve as the Council’s chairman, with the Minister of State serving as vice chairperson and 34 other members representing various industries.
  • Two States from each of the five regions—North, South, East, West, and NER—will nominate a minister in charge of consumer affairs to the Council, which has a three-year term. Additionally, it is possible to form working groups among the members to complete particular tasks.


  • Unless a specific product or service is specifically excluded from its application by the Central Government, the Consumer Protection Act 2019 applies to all goods and services.

Consumer Protection Act 2019 – Product Liability Causes

A new addition to the Consumer Protection Act 2019 is product liability, which reflects norms from the modern world. The new act includes a whole chapter devoted to product responsibility. Consumers are protected from defective goods under this clause.

  • The COPRA 2019 act holds the manufacturer liable if a product does not meet specifications or is found to be defective. The Product Liability Clause also allows for liability for the service provider and the product vendor.
  • When a service is poor or flawed, the provider is held accountable. If no prior warnings, negligence, or injury occurred, the service provider would be held accountable under product responsibility.
  • A product seller is responsible if they exercise significant control over the product’s development, testing, packing, and labelling. Under the Consumer Protection Act 2019 provisions, they are also accountable if a product alteration causes harm to a consumer.
  • The product seller is responsible for lacking assembly, maintenance, and product inspection.

Significance of Consumer Protection Act 2019

The following are the significance of the Consumer Protection Act 2019:

Empowering Consumers:

  • Through its many guidelines and regulations, the Consumer Protection Act 2019 will give consumers more authority and assist them in defending their rights. The new Act will support defending consumer rights and interests.
  • Businesses that focus on serving customers, including retail and e-commerce, must have strong procedures for consumer redress.
  • Additionally, the COPRA 2019 act would pressure consumer-driven enterprises to take extra security measures against unfair trade practices and unethical business activities.

E-commerce Sector Inclusion:

  • E-commerce transactions were deliberately left out of the prior Act, but the new Consumer Protection Act 2019 fills this gap.
  • The act also authorizes restrictions on direct selling and e-commerce to be announced, focusing on safeguarding consumer interests. This would entail regulations preventing e-commerce platforms from engaging in dishonest business activities.

Time-bound Redressal:

  • In consumer courts across the nation, there are frequently many open cases involving consumer complaints. The Consumer Protection Act 2019 can assist in quickly resolving consumer complaints by streamlining the resolution process.
  • The cases under the act are decided within a set time frame, which is one of its key features.

Responsible Endorsement:

  • Given the numerous occasions in recent history where consumers fell victim to unfair business practices while being influenced by celebrities serving as brand ambassadors, the Consumer Protection Act 2019 establishes accountability for endorsers.
  • This will increase responsibility across the board for all parties involved, including companies, agencies, celebrities, influencers, and e-commerce players. To defend against liability claims, the new Consumer Protection Act would mandate that the endorser assume responsibility and use reasonable care to confirm the accuracy of the statements contained in the advertisement.

Supporting Consumer Interests:

  • There will be separate legislation governing product liability for the first time.
  • A product liability clause will discourage manufacturers & service providers from offering subpar goods or services.
  • The National Consumers Dispute Redressal Committee and the State Commission are given the authority to nullify any clauses in a contract made while buying goods under the new legislation. The protection of consumers, who are frequently vulnerable to contractual clauses that benefit a seller or manufacturer, will be greatly enhanced by this.

Alternative Mechanisms for Resolving Disputes:

  • The availability of mediation under the Consumer Protection Act 2019 will streamline and speed up the conflict resolution process.
  • This will offer a better method for quickly resolving consumer complaints and will aid in resolving many pending cases in consumer courts around the country.

Streamlined Procedure for Resolving Grievances:

  • The Consumer Protection Act 2019 will simplify the procedure for resolving consumer disputes and grievances in general. Customers will experience less annoyance and harassment as a result of this.
  • The expanded pecuniary jurisdiction, clauses recognizing mediation as a legal process, provisions allowing complaints to be filed from any country, and provisions allowing parties to be heard via video conference will increase access to judicial forums and provide essential protection at a time when global e-commerce behemoths are growing their customer bases.

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Consumer Protection Act 2019: Major Concerns

Following are some of the concerns of the Consumer Protection Act 2019:

State Regulation:

  • The Ministry of Consumer Affairs will create a code of conduct for advertisers & agencies as part of the Consumer Protection Act 2019 to stop unfair practices and false advertising. If deceptive advertising and fraudulent claims are discovered, the proposed code will specify the fines for advertisers must pay, their agencies, and publishers.
  • There have been worries that adopting this strategy will herald a shift from self-regulation to a more federated oversight.

Implementational Challenges:

  • The local district commission vacancies would make it difficult to effectively administer the Consumer Protection Act 2019 provisions.

Inadequate Differentiation of Approaches:

  • Businesses are prohibited from discriminating against customers who share a class, arbitrarily categorizing clients in a manner that affects their legal rights under the Consumer Protection Act 2019, or “manipulating the price” of goods as well as services provided on their portals to make an excessive profit, according to the proposed rules for e-commerce businesses.

Consumer Protection Act 2019 UPSC Notes

The Central Consumer Protection Authority is created under the Consumer Protection Act 2019, and its main duties include promoting, defending, and upholding consumer rights. Understanding the definitions, features, significance, and main concerns of the Consumer Protection Act 2019 UPSC topic will help you get ready for the polity and governance section of the UPSC exam. Candidates should be aware of the important details of the COPRA 2019 listed below to comprehend this topic better.

  • The act allowed the investigation of consumer rights infringements and the filing of complaints or bringing legal action.
  • It also orders the recall of dangerous products and services.
  • It demands that deceptive advertising and unethical business practices end.
  • It imposes sanctions on the creators, promoters, and publishers of deceptive advertising.
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