Bhagat Singh – History, Contribution in Freedom Struggle, Biography

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

Bhagat Singh was a remarkable freedom fighter of India who is famous for his bravery and revolutionary activities. His name is engraved in modern Indian history with golden words. Bhagat Singh is known for his extraordinary valour and sacrifice that he made for the country’s freedom. He was executed at the young age of 23 years by the British while fighting for India’s independence.

India’s struggle for independence was long, and several freedom fighters laid down their lives for the country. Bhagat Singh was one of the most extraordinary freedom fighters who, at a very young age, jumped in to free India from the clutches of Britishers. Know more about Bhagat Singh’s contribution in freedom struggle, history, biography, and revolutionary activities.

About Bhagat Singh – Biography & History

Bhagat Singh was born on 27th September 1907 in a Sikh family in Lyallpur, Punjab. He attended the DAV High School, operated by Arya Samaj, followed by National College in Lahore. His own family inspired his strong sense of patriotism & devotion to his country at a very young age.

Bhagat Singh UPSC PDF

The family members of Bhagat Singh were also associated with the freedom movement, and therefore, he was naturally inclined toward this more significant purpose. His uncle and father were both active members of Indian politics at the time, participating in various revolutionary movements.

  • In his initial days, he participated in the Non-Cooperation Movement and supported Mahatma Gandhi and marking his role in the freedom struggle.
  • As a child, he displayed his hatred towards the Britishers by burning the books they recommended.
  • Later, when Mahatma Gandhi took back the Non-Cooperation Movement, Bhagat Singh shifted towards revolutionary nationalism.
  • He was also seriously affected by the incident in Jallianwala Bagh in 1919. Subsequently, he became a member of the Hindustan Republican Association in 1924.
  • Bhagat Singh laid the foundation of Naujawan Bharat Sabha in the year 1926 with the intention of encouraging more and more revolutionary activities against the Britishers by involving people from the peasants and working class.
  • After two years of forming the Naujawan Bharat Sabha, Bhagat Singh formed the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) with Chandrashekhar Azad, Sukhdev, and others.
  • This association came to an end with the unsudden death of Chandrashekhar Azad in 1930 when he was shot.

Bhagat Singh Contribution in Freedom Struggle

There were several famous freedom fighters who fought hard and laid down their lives for India’s independence. Bhagat Singh was one such braveheart who didn’t shy away from carrying out many revolutionary activities that shook the British government to the core. Let us have a look at some of the famous revolutions of India’s freedom struggle in which Bhagat Singh participated.

Role of Bhagat Singh in Freedom Struggle

  • Bhagat Singh was an ardent reader of the leftist writings and did not favor capitalism.
  • He supposedly started by writing critical articles to show opposition to the British government. He printed these articles and distributed them everywhere to encourage people to overthrow the government.
  • Bhagat Singh’s stint with the revolutionary movements started with establishing the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. This was when he was introduced to the significance of armed revolution along with the use of explosives.
  • He was arrested in the Kakori Case, for the first time on the accusation of writing a provocative article under the pseudonym Vidrohi which means rebel.
  • Another accusation against Bhagat Singh was that of being involved in a bomb explosion during Dussehra in Lahore.

Revolutionary Activities of Bhagat Singh

As discussed above, Bhagat Singh took part in the Indian freedom movement on a large scale. He was part of various revolutionary movements that made him a popular figure in Indian history. There were many such movements that can never be forgotten and have found a special place in the Indian history of independence.

Lahore Conspiracy Case

The infamous Lahore Conspiracy Case has the name of Bhagat Singh attached to it. In 1928, while carrying out a protest agitation against Simon Commission, Lala Lajpat Rai sustained a few injuries and eventually succumbed to death. It happened during a lathi charge that SP James Scott ordered.

  • Infuriated by this incident, Bhagat Singh decided to take revenge and, due to some misunderstanding, killed another official J P Saunders.
  • This whole incident was termed the Lahore Conspiracy Case.
  • After this incident, Bhagat Singh had to flee from Lahore and hide his appearance to avoid arrest.

Central Assembly Bombing Case

Another incident in which Bhagat Singh was involved was the bombing that took place in the Central Legislative Assembly, on 8th April 1929 in Delhi. He was accompanied by another revolutionary at the time, Batukeshwar Dutt.

  • The bomb was thrown by Bhagat Singh and his accomplice from the ‘Visitor’s Gallery.’
  • Pamphlets were also thrown around by them, and slogans of ‘Inquilab Zindabad’ were also raised.
  • Both Bhagat Singh & Batukeshwar Dutt did not oppose arrest as they were in need of a platform to spread their message.
  • No one was hurt during this incident, as was the intention of Bhagat Singh.
  • They gave a statement that by this explosion, they wanted ‘to make the deaf hear.’

Death of Bhagat Singh

With respect to the JP Saunders Case, Bhagat Singh was charged with murder accusations, along with other freedom fighters. The trial for this case began in July 1929, and all of the freedom fighters were imprisoned in the Lahore Central jail.

  • All the prisoners, including Bhagat Singh, protested against the ill-treatment that they received & demanded better treatment being political prisoners.
  • Many senior leaders, such as Jawaharlal Nehru, came to see them & expressed their hurt.
  • Subsequently, Bhagat Singh went on a fast for 116 days but eventually had to end it when his father and other Congress leaders requested him.
  • Due to a partial trial, Bhagat Singh, Rajguru & Sukhdev were all given death sentences.
  • There were many protests from other Indian leaders demanding a reduced sentence, but they failed.
  • An order to hang all three of them was released. The execution was to happen on 23rd March 1931, but it was carried out a day before.
  • Bhagat Singh, while getting hanged, chanted his slogan of ‘Down with British Imperialism.

As the date of the sentence was decided as 23rd March, this day is now celebrated as ‘Martyrs’ Day’ / Shaheed Diwas / Sarvodaya Day to commemorate the sacrifices of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru & Sukhdev. Bhagat Singh was famously given the nickname Shaheed Bhagat Singh.

Bhagat Singh Slogans

As a fearless freedom fighter, Bhagat Singh is called Shaheed Bhagat Singh. He laid down his life for the nation without any regrets. He was one of the bravest revolutionaries that India has seen so far. His few quotes have earned much popularity instilling a sense of patriotism in the youth.

  • “I am such a lunatic that I am free even in jail.”
  • “They may kill me, but they cannot kill my ideas. They can crush my body, but they will not be able to crush my spirit”.
  • “I am full of ambition, hope, and charm of life. But I can renounce everything at the time of need”.
  • “If the deaf has to hear, the sound has to be very loud.”
  • “Bombs and pistols don’t make a revolution. The sword of revolution is sharpened on the whetting stones of ideas”.
UPSC Notes
Role of Subhash Chandra Bose in Freedom Struggle Lachit Borphukan
Raja Ram Mohan Roy Rani Laxmi Bai
Women Freedom Fighters of India Madam Bhikaji Cama
Role of Mahatama Gandhi in Freedom Struggle of India Newspapers During Freedom Struggle
Nicknames of Freedom Fighters Right to Freedom
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