State Reorganisation Commission: Members, State Reorganisation Act 1956

By K Balaji|Updated : November 3rd, 2022

State Reorganisation Commission: There were four distinct state kinds at the time of the ratification of the Constitution: Parts A, B, C, and D. The remaining elements are managed by centrally chosen Chief Commissioners and Lieutenant Governors because they lack locally elected Assemblies assist and counsel them. By August 15, 1947, the majority of the princely kingdoms had joined the Union of India in the domains of defence, diplomacy, and communication, except Kashmir, Junagarh, and Hyderabad. These princely republics were politically incorporated into the Indian Union by 1950. Additionally, these states were totally subordinated to the national centre according to democracy.

The 1956 States Reorganisation Act reorganised Indian state and territory borders based on linguistic bases. India's newly designed Constitution, which became effective on January 26, 1950, divided states into four major categories. The State Reorganisation Commission UPSC topic is part of Indian Polity. Questions can be raised from this topic in the Prelims and Mains Exam. The several state classifications found in the Indian Constitution are briefly discussed in this article.

Table of Content

History of State Reorganisation Commission

The historical events and conditions gave rise to the Indian states. More reasonable governmental change has been increasingly necessary since independence.

As per the State reorganisation commission, the Indian States were created by considering regional languages and monetary, industrial, and governmental administration.

State Reorganisation Commission PDF

  • India had 27 states in 1951, divided into Parts A, B, C, and D.
    • Part A: The nine states in Part A included Assam, Orissa, West Bengal, Bihar, Punjab, Bombay, Madhya Pradesh (formerly Central Provinces and Berar), Madras, and Uttar Pradesh (previously United Provinces).
    • Part B: The nine states that made up Part B were Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir, Saurashtra, Mysore, Travancore-Cochin, Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), and Rajasthan.
    • Part C: The ten Part C states included Delhi, Kutch, Himachal Pradesh, Bilaspur, Coorg, Bhopal, Manipur, Ajmer, Cooch-Behar, and Tripura. Part C states included both the provinces of former Senior Commissioners as well as other centrally controlled regions, with the exception of the Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
    • Part D: The Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Part D) were a region that had a governor that the Indian President had chosen to lead it.
  • The State reorganisation commission advocated merging the formerly Part B state of Hyderabad with Andhra and dividing the four types of states into two main categories: States and Union territories.
  • State Reorganisation Act: In accordance with Article 4 of the Indian Constitution, the Parliament passed the State Reorganisation Act 1956 to give power to the modernization program.
  • 7th Constitutional Amendment: On October 19, 1956, the Indian President assented to the 7thConstitutional Amendment, which was added to the Constitution to execute the States Reorganisation Act.
  • Part A, Part B, and Part D states were abolished as a result of this modification, which also led to the designation of some territories as Union Territories and the creation of new states by changing the areas and borders of the states that were already in existence.
  • There were 14 states instead of 27, thanks to the States Reorganisation Act 1956.
  • Bombay, Andhra Pradesh As a consequence of state restructuring in 1956, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Madras, Mysore, Punjab, and Rajasthan were created as new states.

Need for Reorganisation of States

In accordance with Article 3 of the Indian Constitution, Parliament passed the States Reorganisation Act 1956 to put into practice the reorganisation plan that resulted from an analysis of the Report's concepts.

  • Creation of Linguistic Regions: The demand for state rearrangement and the formation of linguistic regions are commonly equated.
  • Regional Language Development: This is because the push for the redistribution of British Indian provinces came about as a direct consequence of the remarkable growth of local languages in the 19th century.
  • Emotional Integration of Different Language Groups: As a result, various language groups became emotionally integrated and began to recognise one another as unique cultural entities.
  • Linguistically identical Units: The objective was envisaged and sought in terms of linguistically homogeneous units when progressive public sentiment in India crystallised in support of organizational unit rationalisation.
  • State Level Elevation: By rearranging state boundaries by the state reorganisation commission, an area tries to raise itself to the status of a state so that it can benefit from the resources and privileges that it feels are withheld from it.
  • Rising Awareness Amongst Ethnic Minorities: There is a growing awareness among ethnic minorities and a perception that they have shared traits that set them apart from the state's majority group.
  • Demand Consolidation is Simpler: Minorities are constrained to a particular geographic area, making demand consolidation simpler.
  • National minority communities that are upset acquire a perception of prejudice that is pervasive.
  • Financial Backwardness: People in tense regions feel overlooked by the state administration because of the region's overall economic underdevelopment.
  • Limited Opportunities Available: According to the sub-regional communities who are up in arms, they have fewer opportunities available to them than the majority of the state's citizens.
  • When such movements are led by an accomplished and strong figure, they gather momentum.

What is State Reorganisation Commission

The Federal Government of India established the States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) in August 1953 to make recommendations about the reorganisation of state borders. After two years of research, the Commission, which was made up of Justice Fazal Ali, K. M. Panikkar, and H. N. Kunzru, published its findings in October 1955. With significant adjustments, the commission's recommendations were adopted and included in the States Reorganisation Act, which was passed in November 1956. The act called for the reorganisation of state borders to create 14 states and 6 centrally governed regions.

Reason for Formation of State Reorganisation Commission

More than 500 disparate princely states made up India at the time it gained its independence in 1947. India's component states were momentarily split into Part A, B, C, and D states. Hence, the Indian government established the State Reorganization Commission on December 29, 1953, to investigate the issue of redesigning the boundaries of States. The reorganization of states based on languages was one of the most demanded changes. This was done to simplify administration and to replace contentious caste- and religion-based narratives with less contentious linguistic identities. The members of the State reorganisation commission were K M Panikkar, Fazal Ali, and H N Kunzru.

Reorganisation of States after Independence

571 princely states were reorganised and combined to become 27 states shortly after gaining independence. Historical and political factors were taken into account when this restructuring was carried out.

  • This interim restructuring of the states was carried out. In order to reorganise states into 16 states and 3 union territories, the State Reorganisation Commission, established in 1953, produced a report in 1955. The State Reorganisation Act, passed by Congress in November 1956, divided the nation into 14 states and 6 union territories.
  • The State Reorganisation Commission advised that, for the sake of maintaining our nation's unity, it is neither conceivable nor acceptable to reorganise States on the premise of the specific experiment of either culture or language.
  • Later, when the states were reformed, linguistic, ethnic, or bureaucratic goals may have served as the motivation.
  • Rearranging states according to language would facilitate administration and promote the growth of native tongues, which the British overlooked.
  • Even cultural affinities were taken into consideration; for instance, the creation of Nagaland took into account tribal affinities. Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand were recently established in order to improve economic growth in their respective regions.

Fazl Commission on Reorganisation of States

A separate state was compellingly created in 1953, primarily for Andhra Pradesh residents who spoke Telugu. Potti Sriramulu also passed away as a result of this occurrence. As a result, there was pressure on the government to create Andhra Pradesh, the country's first linguistic state.

  • This incident led to a nationwide demand for the establishment of linguistically-based states. On December 22, 1953, Jawaharlal Nehru chose Fazl Al as a dedicated leader to meet this need. HN Kunzru and K M Panikkar were also essential members of the commission in addition to Fazl Al In. The report was compiled and submitted after studying the desires of the people in various places.
  • The State reorganisation commission study stated that the entire nation needed to be reorganised into 3 main administration zones and 16 states. However, the government did not heed these suggestions.
  • Six union territories and 14 states made up the country according to the States Reorganisation Act of 1956.
  • These states included West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Bombay, Kerala, Mysore, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, and the reorganised Jammu and Kashmir. Delhi, Manipur, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Minicoy, the Laccadive, Himachal Pradesh, the Amindivi Islands, and Tripura were the six union territories.

Shah Commission on Reorganisation of States

The Shah Commission on the state reorganisation act was an investigation panel established by the Indian government in 1977 to look into all the abuses during the Indian Emergency (1975 - 77). Justice J.C. Shah, a former chief justice of India, presided over it.

  • The Punjab Reorganisation Act was passed in 1966 following numerous uprisings to establish Punjabi Suba. This action was recommended by the 1966-appointed Shah Commission.
  • The majority of the Punjabi-speaking population recently moved to Haryana. In addition to being the joint capital of Punjab and Haryana, Chandigarh operated as a Union Territory.
  • Universities, a high population density, and key elements of the electrical system are only a few of the similarities between these two states. Punjab then gained the status of a distinct state.

Further Formation of the States

Assam was split into two states in 1969, one of which became known as Meghalaya. The state was first included in Assam, but over time it was elevated to become a full-fledged state.

  • Manipur and Tripura were made into states, bringing the total number of Indian states to 21.
  • Sikkim was first created as a state inside the Indian Union. Even though it was referred to as an association state, it eventually became a full-fledged state.
  • Mizoram was given the status of a full-fledged state in 1986, at which point it was formally enshrined as the 23rd state of India.
  • Arunachal Pradesh, another Indian Union Territory, was referred to as the 24th state of the Indian Union in 1987.
  • After being separated from Daman and Diu, the Union territory of Goa, the state of Goa was awarded the status of a distinct entity. In November 2000, the states of Jharkhand, Uttaranchal, and Chhattisgarh were created.

State Reorganisation Commission UPSC

The State reorganisation Commission UPSC topic is studied Indian Polity Syllabus of IAS exam. The UPSC aspirants should be clear about aspects of the topic like the state reorganisation commission etc. Candidates who are preparing for the exam next year shall take reference from the UPSC study material provided by us at a website or take the help of the previous year's question papers to have an idea of the type of questions being raised in the exam.

State Reorganisation Act UPSC Questions

Reorganisation of States UPSC topic is part of Indian polity and other topics of political science in the UPSC syllabus. To have a rough vision of the type of questions being asked in the UPSC exam, two sample questions are provided below.

Q1. Which among the following Constitutional Amendments did the Parliament pass in order to put the States Reorganisation Act into effect?

  1. 1951's First Constitutional Amendment
  2. 1956's Seventh Amendment to the Constitution
  3. The 1976 42nd Amendment to the Constitution
  4. The 1976 44th Amendment to the Constitution

Answer- Option B

Q2. Which Article of the Indian Constitution was used by the Parliament to pass the State Reorganisation Act 1956?

  1. Article 4
  2. Article 19
  3. Article 21
  4. Article 352

Answer: Option A

Important Notes for UPSC
Parliamentary PrivilegesTypes of Missiles in India
Important Committees and Commissions in IndiaWorld War 1
Natural VegetationSubsidiary Alliance

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FAQs on State Reorganisation Commission

  • For those who spoke Telugu, India's first linguistic state was established in 1953. The hunger strike in response to Potti Sriramulu's passing led to the reorganisation. Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bombay, Kerala, Madras, Mysore, Rajasthan and Punjab were the new states formed under the state reorganisation act in the year 1956.

  • It was proposed to partition the nation into 16 states and three central administrative states while Jawaharlal Nehru was in power. But after the idea was rejected, it was agreed to split the nation into 14 states and 6 union territories. According to the State Reorganisation Act 1956's guidelines, it was carried out.

  • Time and again, the parliament enacted many Reorganisation Acts that resulted in the bifurcation of existing states. After the formation of many new states under the state reorganisation act 1956, Telangana was the 29th and final state formally established on June 2, 2014, under the State Reorganization Act.

  • The remarkable growth of India's regional languages contributed to the psychological unification of distinct language groups of individuals and the growth of their awareness of their unique individuality as linguistic units. The emergence of India's common languages ensued, which the British later ignored.

  • The States Reorganisation Commission advised merging the former Part B state of Hyderabad with Andhra and dividing the four different types of states into 2 groups: States and Union Territories.

  • The Parliament periodically passed different Reorganisation Acts, such as the North-Eastern States Reorganization Act in 1971, the State of Himachal Pradesh Reorganisation Act in 1970, the State of Bombay Reorganisation Act in 1960, and the Punjab Reorganisation Act in 1966.

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