What Are the Controls Affecting the Climate of India?

By Esha Dhawan|Updated : June 20th, 2022

India has a tropical climate that is made up of a mix of wet and dry weather. And there are several factors that control the Indian climate such as - latitude, altitude, ocean currents, wind and pressure system, relief features, and distance from the sea. Let’s understand these controls that affect the Indian climate in detail:

  • Latitude: Since the Indian land is separated equally by the Tropic of Cancer, half of India has a sub-tropical climate whereas the other half has a humid climate.
  • Altitude: The northern part of the country has low temperature because there are mountains with an average height of 6000 metres. Thus, the Himalayas stop the cold winds from central Asia from entering India. As a result, we have milder winters as compared to Central Asia.
  • Ocean currents: Cold ocean currents lead to a decrease in the temperature whereas warm currents will increase the temperature of a region.
  • Pressure and wind system: The Indian subcontinent is situated in an area of the north-easterly winds that start from the high-pressure subtropical belt of the equator’s northern side and blow towards the south. Later, they are diverted to one side due to the Coriolis force and move towards the low-pressure zone near the equator.
  • Relief features: These are the boundaries that stop the ocean currents from entering the country. For instance, the high mountains act as a barrier between the nation and the hot and cold winds.
  • Distance from the sea: India has an extensive coastline with a maximum elevation of about 30 metres. The regions that are situated closer to the sea are colder in contrast to the interior regions of the country. Hence, with an increase in the distance from the sea, we will experience extreme climate conditions.


Elements Affecting the Indian Climate

India has a tropical or monsoon type of climate. But what are the controls affecting the climate of India? There are 6 controls or elements that can influence it - latitude, pressure and wind system, ocean currents, altitude, relief features, and the distance from the sea. 

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