What is the Difference between LOC and LAC?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 11th, 2023

Since the revocation of Article 370, Pakistan has been continuously doing heavy firing on the LOC (Line of Control) and the IB (International Border).  Prior to this, Indian & Chinese soldiers were fighting at the LAC (Line of Actual Control). Let us know about LOC & LAC, what’s the current situation going on, and the differences between them.

What is LOC

  • The LOC or Line of Control is a live line with a lot of activities such as firing and face-to-face interaction. LOC is clearly demarcated by the militaries.
  • It represents a kind of boundary separating parts of Indian Union Territory i.e. Jammu & Kashmir; controlled by India & illegally occupied by Pakistan. The LOC’s length is around 776-kilometres.
  • The Indian part (i.e. southern and eastern parts of the region) of LOC is known as Jammu & Kashmir which constitutes about 45 percent of Kashmir.

What is the Difference between LOC and LAC?

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Current situation at LOC

India & Pakistan have agreed to strictly observe all the agreements on a ceasefire along the Line of Control (LoC) and other sectors, as per a joint statement recently.

This was declared by the Defence Ministry after a telephonic conversation between the DGMOs (Director General of Military Operations) from the two armies over the hotline.

Both sides agreed for strict observance of all agreements, understandings and cease firing along the LOC and all other sectors with effect from midnight 24-25 February 2021, as per the ministry statement. In the interest of achieving mutually beneficial & sustainable peace along the borders, the two DGMOs also agreed to address each other’s core issues and concerns which have the propensity to disturb peace & lead to violence.

The United Nations Current Secretary-General Antonio Guterres is encouraged by the joint statement issued by the militaries of India & Pakistan on their agreement to observing the ceasefire at the LOC in Kashmir and engaging via the established mechanism. He also hopes that this positive step would provide an opportunity for further dialogue.

What is LAC

  • The LAC stands for Line of Actual Control. It is a boundary between India and China. The phenomenon of ‘Line of Actual Control’ (LAC) came in a bilateral agreement in the year 1993, although there was no concrete settlement on the ground positions between these two countries.
  • The Line of Actual Control separates Indian-controlled territory from that of Chinese-controlled territory. It is a big empty area & nearly 50 to 100 km distance is maintained by the armies of India & China.
  • The Chinese govt. considers LAC to be around 2,000 km whereas India considers the LAC to be 3,488 km long.
  • The LAC is divided into three regions: the eastern sector which spans Arunachal Pradesh & Sikkim, the middle sector in Uttarakhand & Himachal Pradesh, and the western sector in Ladakh.

Current situation at LAC

India recently said it has not conceded any territory under the disengagement agreement with that of China and asserted that it has rather enforced observance of the LAC to prevent any unilateral change in the status quo.

In an important development, Indian External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar spoke to his Chinese counterpart Wang Yi and discussed the implementation of their ‘Moscow Agreement’ on the border standoff in the eastern Ladakh, besides reviewing the disengagement’s status.

The Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) spokesperson Anurag Srivastava said in his statement, there has not been any change in the position of India on the Line of Actual Control and the mutual redeployment as an outcome of the disengagement process should not be misrepresented.

What is the Difference between LOC and LAC?

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Comparison Between LOC & LAC




Full form

Line of Control

Line of Actual Control


Three regions of Kashmir (i.e. Azad Kashmir, Gilgit & Baltistan) occupied by Pakistan and two-thirds, Jammu, Ladakh, and the Kashmir Valley, which is administered by India. (although the whole Kashmir is an integral part of India)

LAC is scattered in three areas of northern Indian states: eastern (Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh), middle (Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh) and western (Ladakh, Kashmir).


LOC is clearly demarcated by the militaries and a lot of activities (i.e. face to face confrontation, firings, etc) take place. The Indian and Pakistan army is present here.

There are big empty regions and nearly 50 to 100 km distance is maintained between Indian & Chinese armies.

Area (Length)

776 kilometre (unofficial)

4,057 kilometre (unofficial)


India & Pakistan

India & China

There is not a clear cut demarcation at the LAC that is why the standoffs have taken place many times like; Doklam in the year 2017, Chumar in the year 2014, Depsang in the year 2013 and Sumdorong the Chu in the year 1987. A similar kind of situation exists at the LOC where the Pakistan army using the POK regions to send terrorists to India. So the current ongoing border disputes are a reality with various countries around the world.

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