  # A/D and D/A converters Study Notes for GATE EE Exam

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Updated on: September 25th, 2023 A/D and D/A converters Study Notes for GATE EE Exam: In this article, you will find the Study Notes on Data Converters which will cover the topics such as DAC & ADC, Classification of DAC, Weighted Resistor and R-2R ladder circuits, Inverting Circuits, Types of ADC and CMOS Logic implementations.

It is possible to convert the analogue signal to digital and vice-versa. We can get digital from analogue through ADC and can get analogue from digital through DAC.

## Digital to Analog Converter (DAC)

DAC converter (also called D/A) accepts an n-bit digital word or input and produces an analogue sample.  where, bn = 1, k = Proportionality factor; bn = 0, if nth bit of digital input is 1; if nth bit of digital input is 0.

## Classification of DAC ### Weighted Resistor DAC (N – bit):

• A DAC can be implemented by using a Summing Amplifier and a set of resistors R, 2R, 4R, 8R, etc as its inputs.
• The circuit consists of a reference voltage Vf, N binary-weighted resistors R, 2R, 4R, 8R, . . . , 2(N-1) R, N single-pole double-throw switches & an Op-amp together with its feedback resistance R = R/2.
• The switches are controlled by an N-bit digital input word D.  V0 = -Rf If = -Vf D LSB resistance = (2N–1) MSB resistance.

• The accuracy of the DAC depends critically on the accuracy of the Reference voltage, the precision of the binary-weighted resistors, and the completeness of the switches.
• A disadvantage of the binary-weighted resistor network is that for a large number of bits (N > 4), the difference between the smallest and largest resistances becomes quite large. This denotes difficulties in maintaining accuracy in resistor values.

### R – 2R Ladder DAC:

Non-Inverting OP-amp type DAC  ### Inverting Amplifier:   ### Inverted Ladder R – 2R Circuit:    ## Specifications for DAC

• Resolution in DAC is exchanged in analogue output corresponding to 1 LSB bit increase in the input.
• Resolution = weight of LSB = • V= Voltage corresponding to logic
• N = Number of bits.
• Analog Output Analog output = resolution x decimal equivalent of binary data
• Maximum Analog Output Voltage (VFS) VFS is the maximum analogue output voltage of DAC. VFS = Vr

• Percentage Resolution: • Maximum Error Maximum error acceptable in ADC and DAC equals resolution.
• Resolution (R-2R ladder type) = ## Analog to Digital Converter

• A/D converter (also called an ADC) accepts an analogue sample Vand produces an N-bit digital word.
• Examples of ADC usage are cellphone, thermocouples, digital voltmeters, and a digital oscilloscope.
• Types of A/D Converters: Dual Slope A/D Converter, Successive Approximation A/D Converter, Flash A/D Converter, Delta-Sigma A/D Converter, etc. • In N-bit counter type ADC:
• Maximum number of clock pulses required for conversion = 2N -1
• The maximum time required for conversion = (2N -1) TCLK
• Minimum number of clock pulses = 1
• The average number of clock pulses = 2N-1

• It is faster than digital ramp ADC.
• Conversion time (tc) is independent of the value of the analogue input voltage (Va).
• It has a fixed conversion time. • Maximum number of clock pulses = N for conversion
• Maximum conversion time = N.TCLK

• It is also known as Parallel-comparator type ADC or Simultaneous converter.
• Functional component
• It utilizes 2N -1 comparators to compare the input signal level with each of the 2N -1 possible quantization levels.
• The output of the comparators is processed by an encoding-logic block to provide the N bits of the output digital word.
• Complete conversion can be obtained within one clock cycle.
• For N-bit comparator:
• Total number of comparators = 2N -1,
• Total number of resistors = 2N,
• Total number of priority encoders = 1 (2N × N)

### 2-bit Flash Converter: ### Dual Slope Integrating Type ADC:

• It has the slowest conversion time but has a relatively low cost.
• The following components are present in the Dual slope A/D converter:
• Integrator
• Electronically Controlled Switches
• Counter
• Clock
• Control Logic
• Comparator  where, n = Count recorded in the counter.

### Dual Slope Integrating Type ADC:

• Total number of clock pulses = 2N + n
• Maximum number of clock pulses = 2N + 2N – 1 = 2N + 1 -1== 2N + 1 ## CMOS: Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

CMOS inverter  CMOS contains two types of power dissipation

1. Static power dissipation During logic 0 or logic 1
2. Dynamic power dissipation Occurs during transitions and it is given by where C is the capacitance of MOSFET

## Other Logic Gates by CMOS • Power dissipation is lowest in CMOS.
• Pdiss = 0.01mW Figure of merit = 0.7 PJ
• Noise margin =VDD/2
• tpd = 70 ns Fan-out = 50

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