Who were the Two Main Leaders of the Khilafat Movement?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 9th, 2023

The two main leaders of the Khilafat Movement were Mohammed Ali and Shaukat Ali. Shaukat Ali was a Khilafat Movement member from India. He was the elder brother of Mohammad Ali Jouhar, a well-known political leader. The Ali Brothers was another name for them. The goal of the Khilafat Movement was to compel the British government to modify its policy toward Turkey and put the Khalifa back in its rightful place.

Two Main Leaders of the Khilafat Movement

The Khilafat Movement was a pan-Islamic force that originated in 1919 along with the Non-Cooperation Movement in India. The movement was an effort to salvage the Ottoman caliph as a symbol of unity among the Muslim community in India during the British Raj. Muslims in India were outraged by Britain’s stance toward Turkey.

Turkey was defeated in World War I, and the harsh terms of the Treaty of Sevres (1920) were viewed as a major insult by Muslims.

  • The Khilafat Movement was led collaboratively by Khilafat leaders and the Congress, with prominent leaders including Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, M.A. Ansari, Saifuddin Kitchlew, and the Ali brothers.
  • The majority of the prominent political and public protests in favor of the caliphate occurred in India, despite their emergence across the Muslim world.
  • Maulana Muhammad Ali Johar, a well-known Muslim journalist with an education from Oxford, served four years in prison for supporting the caliphate and encouraging resistance to the colonial government.
  • Muslim religious leaders were concerned for the caliphate at the start of the Turkish War of Independence because the European powers were reluctant to defend it.
  • The idea of being drafted to fight against other Muslims in Turkey was abhorrent to some Indian Muslims.
  • The Khilafat was not a religious organization to its founders or adherents; rather, it was an expression of support for their Muslim brothers and sisters in Turkey.

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