What is the Classification of Tribal Communities?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 9th, 2023

Tribal Communities are classified as per their permanent features and acquired features. A tribe is a group of people who live and work together in a shared geographic area. They share a common culture, dialect, and religion. They also have a strong sense of unity. Tribal communities, or Scheduled Tribes, are groups within such tribes or tribal communities that are declared Scheduled Tribes for the purposes of this Constitution by Article 342.

Classification of Tribal Communities

Tribal communities are classified as per the following – Permanent and Acquired properties.

Permanent properties

  • They have linguistic, regional, ecological, and physical characteristics.
  • Rural plains, hills, urban industrial zones, and woods are examples of ecological habitats.
  • Tribes are classified into four groups based on their language.
  • Indo-Aryan and Dravidian are two, and Tibeto-Burman and Austrian are the other.
  • The tribes are classified as Negrito, Dravidian, Australoid, Aryan, and Mongoloid based on their physical racial characteristics.
  • The strains differ substantially in size.
  • The Santhals, Gonds, Bhils, Oranoni, Bodas, Minas, and Mundas are the major tribes.

Acquired properties

  • These can be classed as hunters and food gatherers, fishers, farmers, cultivators, planters, and industrial workers based on their source of income.
  • Assimilation extent – tribes assimilated into Hindu civilization by Sanskritization, cultivation, and adoption of the Shudra tribe. They were accepted into Hindu society based on their attitudes and financial standing.


What is the Classification of Tribal Communities?

Tribal communities are generally classified as acquired traits and permanent traits. These traits can include aspects such as linguistic and racial identity, ecological habitat, mode of livelihood, and more. Article 342 declares tribal communities or Scheduled Tribes, or parts of or groups within such tribes or tribal communities, to be Scheduled Tribes for the purposes of the Constitution.

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