What are the three Major Buffer Systems of the Body and How do they Work?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

The three major Buffer Systems of the body are carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system, phosphate buffer system and renal tubular fluid and protein buffer system. The carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system is made of carbonic acid, the phosphate buffer system is important to buffer the intracellular and renal tubular fluid and the protein buffer system binds to hydroxyl and hydrogen ions.

Three Major Buffer Systems of the Body

A buffer is a type of solution that can withstand pH changes. The cause is the presence of basic or acidic elements. The two main types of buffer solutions are alkaline buffer solutions and acidic buffer solutions.

Carbonic Acid Bicarbonate Buffer System

  1. Carbonic acid is the main component of the carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system.
  2. They are weak acids in which the bicarbonate anion serves as their conjugate base.

Phosphate Buffer System

  1. It is not required as a buffer for extracellular fluid.
  2. It is crucial for preserving intracellular fluids and renal tubular fluid.
  3. When the buffer system is given a powerful base, such as NaOH.
  4. The H2PO4 buffers OH to form more HPO4 + H2O

Protein Buffer System

  1. Every protein has the capacity to function as a buffer.
  2. Amino acids make up proteins.
  3. It includes carboxyl groups and negatively and positively charged amino groups.
  4. These molecules’ charged areas can bind hydrogen and hydroxyl ions.
  5. To serve as buffers.


What are the three major Buffer Systems of the Body, and How do they Work?

The three major buffer systems of the body are the Carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system, the Phosphate buffer system and the Renal tubular fluid & protein buffer system. A buffer is a substance that can withstand changes in pH. The presence of basic or acidic elements brings it on.

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