Kothari Commission: Recommendations, Kothari Commission 1964-66 Notes PDF

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

Kothari Commission 1964-66 was established by the government of India to enhance the status of the Education system in India under the Chairmanship of Daulat Singh. It was formed for two years and got dissolved on 29 June 1966. The experts based in France, Sweden, the UK, Japan, and the USA were members of the Kothari Commission. This body was responsible for forming the New Education Policy of India.

It is one of the important commissions formed by the Indian government. The recommendations of the Kothari Commission include providing free and compulsory education to children of 6 to 14 years, three language formula, etc. Many questions have been asked about the topic in the B.ed, UPSC, and other competitive exams. Below you will learn about its needs, objectives, recommendations, advantages, and disadvantages along with getting a direct link to download the Kothari Commission notes PDF.

What is Kothari Commission?

Kothari Commission was formed on July 14, 1964, with the major aim of increasing the level of real education in the country. It collects all the necessary information for uplifting the Indian education system. The collected data is then presented to the Indian Government. Along with this, the Kothari commission is also responsible for making appropriate recommendations for effectively formulating the Education policy.

The highlights of the Kothari Commission 1964-66 are as follows-

Highlights Details
Official name National Education Commission, 1964
Kothari Commission was formed on July 14, 1964
Total Members 17
Chairman of Kothari Commission Dr Dulat Singh Kothari (D.S Kothari)
Headquarters New Delhi, India
Reports submitted on June 29, 1966

☛ Also Read: Which is the First Education Commission in India?

Need of the Kothari Commission

Kothari Commission 1964-66 was introduced to develop the existing education system. The government observed a lot of defects in the education system and felt a strong need to come up with a commission that would help the education system bloom in the correct way. The following reasons led to the formation of the Kothari Commission in India:

  • The Indian education system was not given appropriate significance like the agriculture system.
  • The academics were divided into a lot of portions.
  • The Indian education system doesn’t hold the idea of National reconstruction.
  • There was no emphasis on providing spiritual or moral values to enhance the character formation of the students.

Objectives of Kothari Commission

Seeing the need to change the education system in India, the Kothari commission was established with the major objectives listed below:

  • It aims to find a general pattern of education in India and evolve it in a better way.
  • It works to provide policies and guidelines for developing Indian education.
  • Examine every aspect (even at a smaller level) of the Indian education sector.
  • The Indian Education Commission had its emphasis on two primary domains of education. These are legal education and medical education.

Recommendations of Kothari Commission

There were 23 recommendations of the Kothari Commission that aimed to improve the quality of the education system in India. These can be summarised as improving the quality of Textbooks, improvement in curriculum, and objectives for national education, restructuring of education structure, enhancing the mode of teaching, and improving the status of teachers.

The critical 23 recommendations of the Kothari Commission are as follows:

  • Evaluation
  • Higher Education – Enrollment
  • Work Experience
  • Administrative Problems
  • University – Aims, Objectives, and Functions
  • Adult Education
  • Teacher Education
  • University Autonomy
  • Education on Morals and Religion
  • Vocational Education
  • Selective Admission
  • Distance Education
  • Three language formula
  • Problems of Supervision and inspection
  • Guidance and counseling
  • Education of women
  • Physical welfare of students
  • Educational structures and standards
  • Curriculum
  • Textbook
  • Methods of Teaching
  • Aims of the education
  • Defects in the existing education system

Here is a brief detail on the important recommendations of the Kothari Commission 1964-1966:

  • There was a provision for compulsory and free education for every child aged 6 to 14 years.
  • It was of the idea that there must be three language formula, i.e., all the schools at the state level must promote three languages which include English, Hindi, and any regional language in case of the states where Hindi is not a speaking language.
  • One of the Kothari Commission recommendations focuses on the promotion of regional languages, Sanskrit, and other international languages, along with others.
  • It has recommended providing a good and favorable work environment for the teachers. Along with this, it also favors the funding necessary to conduct education smoothly.
  • It promoted the education of the tribal, backward classes, girls, and physically and mentally disturbed kids.
  • It is recommended to put the focus on maths and science as they are a vital part of modern education.
  • It forced setting up reforms to enhance an individual’s education at the University level. It includes the measures like putting special attention on research at the PG level and services like labs, libraries, and funds.

☛ Learn More:

Kothari Commission Report

After the tenancy of the Kothari Commission, the report was sent to the government depending on comparative research in two years (1964 to 1966). The report was submitted on 29 June 1996. The report of the Kothari Commission was divided into four different sections. These are as follows:

  • Section 1 – This section of the report deals with the problems related to the general education system.
  • Section 2 – Section 2 of the Kothari Commission report deals with the education of students at different stages.
  • Section 3 – Section 3 of the report is responsible for the implementation of the various programs and recommendations suggested by the Kothari Commission.
  • Section 4 – Section 4 of the report deals with the supplementary papers.

Also, the commission suggested that there is no need for reforms to develop the education system in India. Along with this, it suggested that the education system need not be transformed. Instead, it should be noted that the education provided to the students must relate to their aims, needs, life, and dreams.

Advantages of Kothari Commission

After implementing the recommendations of the Kothari Commission, there were a lot of significant changes in the existing education sector, which are listed below:

  • The bill for the National education policy was passed in the Parliament under the leadership of Indira Gandhi.
  • The new National Education Policy came into being that changed the aligned of the education system into the 10+2+3 pattern.
  • Also, the Kothari commission was responsible for influencing the National Policy on Education in 1986.
  • The education system got separated into two boards- the Central board and the state board.

Disadvantages of Kothari Commission 1964-66

Though the Kothari Commission was successful in bringing on changes in the education system. It cannot be denied that it has a lot of demerits. The disadvantages or demerits of the Kothari Commission are as under:

  • Lack of explanation – It suggested a few solutions but doesn’t give an explanation for their implementation or how to achieve it.
  • Huge financial investment – The transformation of the education system, as per the Kothari Commission, requires a lot of financial investment.
  • Conflicting – There were many people who thought that most of the recommendations by the Commission were controversial and may lead to conflicts in the future.
  • Positions of the head – There was no recommendation or suggestion over the head of the schools or colleges.

Kothari Commission UPSC

Kothari Commission UPSC notes have significance in the IAS Exam with equal importance in the Prelims and Mains exam. Candidates can learn more about the topic and all other related topics by going through the PDF available here which can be used in the preparation for UPSC, B.ed, and other exams. They can access it anytime on their device and learn all details about the Kothari Commission 1964-66, including its need, objectives, merits, demerits, Kothari Commission recommendations, etc. For student teachers as well, it is vital to know about all the policies related to the education system of India to understand the current scenario and policies better.

Kothari Commission Notes PDF

Many questions have been asked in the Prelims and Mains exam on the Kothari Commission UPSC notes. A few of the questions are as follows:

Question – Which of the following commissions in their report recommended that science Education and Research should receive high priority to accelerate the national economy?

  1. Acharya Narendra Dev Committee
  2. Mudaliyar Commission
  3. Radhakrishnan Commission
  4. Kothari Commission

Answer – Kothari Commission

Question – Which of the following suggested continuing education?

  1. Mudhaliyar Commission
  2. Chadah Commission
  3. Kothari Commission
  4. Bhore Committee

Answer – Kothari Commission

Question – “India faces challenges in providing quality education to its children and the youth.” Discuss the importance of the new education policy in light of this statement. [UPSC Mains]

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