Education System in India – Current Indian Education Issues, Policies, and Solutions

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

The education system in India is designed to enhance an individual’s knowledge, techniques, skills, and vision concerning various worldly topics. Education is a valuable tool for empowering one’s ability in every sphere of life. The country’s development depends on the quality of the education system in India. Investing appropriately in the Indian education system is essential to increase the productivity and efficiency of the workforce in various enterprises. The current education system in India aids in instilling ethical and moral values.

Resolving current Indian education issues and policies and providing more satisfactory education to youth can upgrade our country’s future. Changes have been implemented to enrich the Indian education system with advancing years, but many ambiguities still ought to be addressed. Readers can understand in detail the problems and loopholes with the education system in India and a few counter-solutions to overpower these challenges.

How is Education System in India?

There has been a significant transformation in India’s education system from British rule until now. The current education system in India underlines developing one’s qualities involving good practices, creative thinking, confidence, and empathy. Children were taught in small Gurukuls, and it was gradually revised by establishing a contemporary Indian education system.

  • After India attained independence and a new constitution was drafted, among the 6 fundamental rights for every citizen, the Right to Education was one.
  • The structure of education in India is separated into 4 primary classifications, namely, pre-primary (kindergarten), primary (6-14), elementary and secondary education (14-18), and then higher studies.

Stages of Education System in India

Under the Right to Education Act of 2009, every child between 3 to 18 has the right to get free and mandatory education. The current education system in India comprises the following stages.

Level of Education System Type of Education Age Class Important levels of the education system in India
Elementary School Primary 6–14 1–8 Medium of instruction is a regional language for primary schools. English is the second language that starts in grade 3.
Secondary School Secondary 14–18 9–12 Comprises of Grade 10th and 12th – Secondary and Senior Secondary School.
First or Bachelor’s University Degree Tertiary 12–15 3-Year Programs – science, commerce, arts, and social studies.

Diploma programs (2 – 3 years) – Technological or specialized engineering, the highest qualification is Post Diploma.

Professional Bachelor’s degrees ( 4 – 5.5 years) – Medicine, Law, Architecture, etc.

First (Engineering & Technology) University Degree Tertiary 12–16 The courses stretch to 4 years.
Second (Master’s) University Degree Tertiary 15–17 Include M. Tech, LL.M., MA, MBA, MS, M. Com, which are 2-year programs.
Doctoral Degree Tertiary 17–22 Consists of dissertation or thesis and research of 5 years.

Current Indian Education Issues and Policies

There are numerous issues associated with the current education system in India. A state-run public education system primarily handles education in the nation which falls under the authority of local, state, and central governments. Some of the relevant issues that need to be curbed are listed below.

Students Studying Abroad

It is observed that one of the major reasons for students shifting to another country are the current problems of Indian education. The concerned authorities should work on the issues so that more youths get educated in their native country and contribute to the growing economy by applying their knowledge and skills.

Authorization and Branding

Education management must focus on improving education quality standards. Schools and colleges should offer officially recognized, accepted, or approved degrees.

Ratio Between Teacher and Student

The students pursuing education are more than the tutors needed in the academies. Therefore, teachers should be employed wisely by checking their qualifications so that valuable knowledge is transferred to aspiring students.

Inadequate Employable Skills

The youths completing higher education in India do not possess a basic level of education and hence lack industry-level aptitudes. Due to carelessness in the foundation of basic education, they cannot develop their skills and remain unemployed.

PPP Model

The Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model can produce innovative specimens for the school system in India, which is why they should be considered.

Infrastructure Facilities

Government schools should have proper infrastructure as they have already started broadcasting digital education in rural schools.

Sports Education

The education system in India neglect sports in the education strategy. Though there has been a phenomenal advancement in this field, sports education is still a luxury in India.

Utilization of Capacity

The Government should utilize students’ full capabilities and ideas by motivating them and boosting schools to encourage youths with creative minds.

Expenditure on Education

It is crucial to allocate more funds to solve the major problems in the Indian education system. With the passing years, many adaptations have been performed in the education system, and if this continues, the country will be able to overcome the challenges. India must also adopt a Gross enrolment pattern observed by the United Nations.

Development of the Indian Education System and its Challenges

Listed are the problems associated with the Indian education system and some solutions that the Government can opt to improve the education pattern, thereby enriching the country’s future.

Reasonable Education System

Most educational organizations, especially Government schools, are affordable even for the poor but need better education and proper infrastructure.

  • In contrast, private schools provide good quality education, excellent infrastructure, and additional types of equipment to practice but are generally expensive for many.
  • It is one of the problems in the education system in India that the Government must work on so that everyone gets an equal level of education in terms of affordability and accessibility.

Quality of Education Sector in India

The education system in India varies between urban and rural areas. Rural areas are generally less advanced than urban, and hence they cannot offer suitable educational facilities and competent instructors to students compared to urban establishments.

  • Important measures must be initiated to improve education quality across all country regions.
  • The Indian education system should be unbiased for its youth and offer them similar learning and career opportunities to develop.

Requirement of Innovations in Indian Education System

The system of Indian education has always concentrated on bookish knowledge, and the system must focus more on encouraging digital learning and education. This way, the country could explore innovative young minds useful for the country’s evolution.

  • Fostering digital education will present a considerable modification in the education system of India.
  • The Government authorities must nurture the minds of the young generation for the country’s development.

Campaigns to Improve the Current Education System in India

Check out the most effective Government schemes founded to improve the present education system in India, along with their basic objectives. Check the policies and their relevance in the current education system.

Schemes for India’s Education System Significance in the Education System of India
Beti Bachao Beti Padhao The scheme boosted the education of girl children in India.
Scheme for Infrastructure Development in Minority Institutes It was started to promote the education of minorities group by increasing and reinforcing the school infrastructure in Minority Institutions.
Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan It is a scholarly scheme seeking to improve secondary education and raise the enrolment rate by providing a secondary school.
Mid Day Meal Scheme It is a single-meal scheme that provides food to children enrolled in government-aided schools, special training centres, Maktabs and Madrasas backed under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan.
National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level It is a focused interruption of Government to approach the “Hardest to Reach” girl child, particularly those not enrolled in school.
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan It was founded in 2001 to facilitate ‘Education for All, supporting better infrastructure of existing schools and building new schools.

Education System in India UPSC

The education system in India is an essential topic for the UPSC exam. The aspirants aiming to become IAS officers must have an in-depth knowledge of the current education system policies and issues. The candidates can download the notes for the exam and move ahead in their journey of effective preparation for the exam.

Indian Education System UPSC Questions

The Indian Education system in India is a pivotal topic for the exam. The aspirants are advised to check the questions related to the topic and start solving the questions. The complete list of the questions has been illustrated here.

Mains Question: What are some defects in the higher education system of India? Suggest some reforms and measure to address the problems.

Mains Question: What are the problems faced by India to facilitate quality education to the youth and children?

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