Hunter Commission- Recommendations, Introduction, Merits & Demerits

By Balaji

Updated on: February 17th, 2023

Hunter Commission report of 1892 and 1919 was chaired by Sir William Hunter. The commission of 1892 had the major objective of scrutinizing the non-implementation of Wood’s Despatch of 1854. After the horrific slaughter at the Jallianwala Bagh massacre, the Hunter Commission was instituted to examine and scrutinize the incident. Under General Dyer’s command, at least 1000 people were massacred, including women, children, and the elderly, and another fifteen hundred were wounded on that terrible day. Lord William Hunter directed the investigating committee. The Hunter Commission Report was established on October 29, 1919.

Hunter Commission 1882 aimed to uplift and upgrade the elementary education system. It focused on the essentiality of extending the uplifting the education system at primary and secondary levels. The article facilitates complete information on the Hunter Commissions of 1882 and 1919. The aspirants preparing for the UPSC exam must possess a detailed cognizance of all the factors and pertinents relating to the Hunter Commission, and download the UPSC notes.

Table of content

  • 1. Introduction of Hunter Commission 1882 (more)
  • 2. Objectives of Hunter Commission 1882 (more)
  • 3. Recommendations of Hunter Commission 1882 (more)
  • 4. Conclusion of Hunter Education Commission (more)
  • 5. Who was William Hunter? (more)
  • 6. Hunter Commission 1920 (more)
  • 7. Hunter Commission Report 1920 (more)
  • 8. Merits And Demerits of Hunter Commission 1882 (more)
  • 9. Hunter Commission For UPSC Exam (more)

Introduction of Hunter Commission 1882

The primary and foremost objectives of the Hunter Commission are to emphasize primary education. It also examined instituting Wood’s Despatch 1854 and present the reforms in the education system. After the 1857 revolt, the administration was transferred and migrated to the Crown.

  • The essentiality of uplifting the education status in the country was acknowledged. It also aimed to eliminate and mitigate the defects in the education system of the country.
  • The General Education Council in India was instituted, and Lord Ripon was endowed with the responsibility of administering the status of education in India.
  • Another objective was to look that whether the Government ought to be permitted to facilitate education for the masses.
  • It also had the objective of uplifting higher education or secondary education in the country.

Objectives of Hunter Commission 1882

The major objectives of the Hunter Commission 1882 were to mainly lay focus on the level and state of the primary education system in India. It also presented suggestions and advice for the improvement of the education at primary level.

  • It also included evaluating the efforts of religious missionaries in uplifting the education of India.
  • The major objectives of the Hunter Commission also included probing into the implementation of the Wood’s Despatch and using the grant for reforms in the education sector.
  • The Commission also considered taking care of secondary and higher education though the main focus was on facilitating primary education.
  • It also made decisions on the factors that whether the government ought to pursue facilitating education to all or not.

Recommendations of Hunter Commission 1882

The recommendations that were presented by the Hunter Commission leading to a turning point in the education system in India are listed below. The educated individuals were recruited for lower-level government jobs.

  • There was a complete segregation of the funds’ allocated to the rural and urban areas. This further proceeded to the effective and useful utilization of the allocated in the rural areas for the upliftment of rural schools.
  • The district boards along with the municipal boards were endowed with the responsibility of governing and regulating the management of primary education.
  • The private parties possessed the responsibility of establishing secondary schools, in accordance with the guidance of the model schools of the government.
  • The curriculum at the secondary levels was classified in accordance with the vocational and academic subjects.
  • Another remarkable accomplishment of the Hunter Commission 1882 was it also aimed to uplift the active participation of women and girls in the schools.
  • The curriculum of the primary classes was designed to be instructed in the mother tongue. It comprised the subjects of arithmetic, geography, and agriculture.
  • The Hunter Commission also laid emphasis on uplifting higher education, by facilitating adequate infrastructure facilities.

Conclusion of Hunter Education Commission

This marked to be the first establishment of the education system of British India. It rightly brought forth concerns about the need of altering the education system. Walk through the significance of the Hunter Commission 1882.

  • The recommendations that were presented by the Hunter Commission were accepted and the reforms and revamping of primary and secondary education were brought forth.
  • There was a reduction in the number of British subjects in the school. The number of students moving and getting educated also surged. The Hunter Commission also led to the establishment of Punjab University.

Who was William Hunter?

Sir William Hunter was recruited for managing the Hunter Education Commission and was also endowed with the responsibility of scrutinizing the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. He had his education at Glasgow University. He was recruited as the Magistrate of Bengal Presidency. He authored numerous books such as “The Annals of Rural Bengal” and “The Imperial Gazetteer in India”. Later, he was appointed as the Vice-Chancellor of Calcutta University.

Hunter Commission 1920

The Hunter Commission report 1920 was established after the tragic massacre at Jallianwala Bagh. The commission comprised members of both Indian origin and Britishers. They altogether criticized the actions of General Dyre. The open firing of General Dyre to disperse the crowd was vehemently condemned. The intent of Dyre to impose moral effect through the exhibition of force was censured by the Commission. The Hunter Commission members were as listed here

  • Lord William Hunter
  • W.F Rice
  • Justice G.C Rankin
  • Major General Sir George Barrow
  • Sir Chimanlal Setalvad
  • Pandit Jagat Narayan
  • Sardar Sultan Ahmad Khan

Hunter Commission Report 1920

The Hunter Commission report was presented and it was acknowledged that the crowd gathering at Jallianwala Bagh was not a stratagem to throw out Britishers. On May 26, 1920, the committee presented its Hunter Commission Report. In it, most of its members admonished Dyer for the misguided notion of duty. It was determined that the assembly would not be the product of an Indian scheme.

  • The Indian members presented a minority view of the incident. They stated that the actions are deemed to be considered inhumane and impaired the reputation of the British in the country.
  • Congress brought forth its notion even before the senate could issue its report. This viewpoint censured Dyer’s acts as brutal and stated that the establishment of military rule in Punjab was unjustified. The Hunter Commission report supported the establishment of military rule in Punjab.
  • The Hunter Report, on the other hand, saw things differently than one might anticipate. It was against the acts of Dyer, but supported the military rule in Punjab.
  • As a consequence, Dyer was escaped of his command and transported to England. However, the rest of the information was based on the government’s official position. Gandhi was enraged, and the Kaisar-I-Hind Gold Medal was returned to him. He believes the moment has arrived when such flagrant acts of inhumanity can no longer be remedied through traditional political channels.

It was also a good time for the Khilafat Grievances. The Khilafat leaders and Congress were aligned together. Gandhi laid the proposition of initiating a non-cooperation movement countrywide.

Merits And Demerits of Hunter Commission 1882

The Merits of Hunter Education Commission was that it aimed to proliferate and enhance the status of primary education in India. The medium of instruction for primary education was also prescribed to be in the mother tongue. Women and girls were encouraged to enroll in the schools. The number of candidates moving to the schools increased.

The demerits of Hunter Commission 1882 is that the changes were constrained to the level of schools. The government schools were loaded down, due to the running out of the traditional school system. This further led to the creation of ordeals in the education system of the children.

Hunter Commission For UPSC Exam

The Hunter Commission report 1882 and 1919 is the pivotal and essential topic for the UPSC exam. The aspirants must be having a well-versed knowledge of the topic., the recommendations of the Hunter Education Commission. The aspirants are suggested to practice the previous year papers in order to gain insights into the types of questions asked in the exam.

The comprehensive knowledge of the topics and the subject will enlighten the candidates to solve the questions in the stipulated time frame. The Hunter commission reports and recommendations will lead the path of analyzing many other historical events.

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