Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] – Full Form, Meaning, EEZ of India

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

In India, the Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] is mapped by the Ministry associated with the EEZ program India. The UNCLOS (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea) is an entity that regulates the use of the oceans and seas around the globe. The Exclusive Economic Zone forms an eminent and integral part of the UPSC syllabus. The aspirants must prepare well for this topic to be able to gain attain good grades in the exam. The zones also establish limited control in terms of law enforcement within the specified zone, allowing countries control over immigration, pollution, customs, and taxation.

Exclusive Economic Zone gives the right of innocent passage (one that does not prejudice the security, peace, and good order) to foreign ships passing through these waters. The United States defines its Exclusive Economic Zone under U.S. fisheries laws.It has formulated a regulatory framework and a comprehensive regime of laws and rules governing the usage of water bodies. An Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] is an area of the ocean defined by the UNCLOS over which a specific nation has some rights.

What is Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]?

The 1982 Law of the UNCLOS defines an Exclusive Economic Zone as a zone in the ocean over which a nation enjoys rights that allow using and exploring marine resources including wind and water energy generation and natural gas and oil extraction.

The country also has the responsibility to conserve the living and non-living resources in the zone under this law. This zone is adjacent to and past the territorial sea from the baseline which is generally measured with the help of official charts.

What is EEZ Full Form?

The EEZ full form is the Exclusive Economic Zone, it reiterates the right of a country over the exclusive area of the ocean in which they are permitted for exploring the maritime resources and enforcing the laws in the country.

The convention is presently recognized globally as a treaty that handles matters related to the laws of the sea. It has been ratified by 164 UN member states and other parties. India ratified the law in 1995, under which it sets the limit of territorial waters.

Exclusive Economic Zone in India

The Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] is the 18th largest in the world covering Mainland India, Lakshadweep, and Andaman-Nicobar Islands Ministry of Earth Sciences Geoscientific Study of the Indian Exclusive Economic Zone Programme.

  • The program maps the EEZ using the multibeam swath bathymetry technology, assesses the potential of resources in the zone, and builds a database of marine geosciences for future projects.
  • India in cumulative comprises 2.3 million square kilometers. It comprises the Lakshadweep islands and Andaman & Nicobar islands. Maldives and Sri Lanka frontiers the Exclusive Economic Zone.

Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] – Powers, Roles & Responsibilities

The Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ] of a country starts at the edge of the sea, extending outward to a distance of 200 n-mi from the baseline. It stretches into the sea ending at 12 n-mi from the baseline which means it includes the contiguous zone.

  • This part of Exclusive Economic Zone gives limited control to the nation in terms of law enforcement.
  • It can only enforce laws in areas of immigration, pollution, customs, and taxation. The territorial sea and the coast beyond 200 miles are not covered under the EEZ.
  • Within the zone, the nation enjoys rights over natural resources and has jurisdiction over activities for reasons like environmental protection.
  • Exclusive Economic Zone establishes a law of the sea, giving sovereign nations special rights and privileges when it comes to exploring minerals and resources within their respective zones.

Importance of EEZ

The exclusive economic zone of India comprises 2.3 million square kilometres. India also comprises 7,500 km of coastline. It constitutes the Lakshadweep islands and Andaman and Nicobar islands. The significance of the exclusive economic zones is that it makes available numerous resources such as natural gas, oil, minerals, and other natural resources. The ships get access across the territorial sea. The exclusive economic zone can extend to 200 nautical miles. It serves numerous purposes and hence is important economically.

This is also essential for the UPSC syllabus, the candidates must be having complete detailed knowledge of the topic to answer the questions accurately. The questions can be asked in Prelims and Mains exam and the right preparation will lead the candidates toward success.

Sections of Exclusive Economic Zone [EEZ]

The Exclusive Economic Zone is classified and stratified into three major sections that are territorial waters, territorial sea, and contiguous zone. Territorial water refers to the water source over which a country is possessing authority.

  • The territorial water comprises internal water, an Exclusive economic zone, a contiguous zone, and a continental shelf.
  • Territorial sea extends its boundaries from baseline upto 12 nautical miles. Ships also access the passage through the territorial sea.
  • The contiguous zone initiates from the boundary of the territorial sea. It can extend upto 24 nautical miles from the baseline or 12 nautical miles from the sea. There are restricted powers to the state for accessing these areas of territory. The laws can only be implemented in four domains by the State which is customs, taxation, immigration, and pollution.


The candidates preparing for the IAS exam must be well versed with the EEZ meaning, definitions and other pertinents. It forms as integral and eminent part of the UPSC syllabus. The questions pertaining from this topic can be asked in prelims and mains exam.

The aspirants must solve the UPSC previous year’s papers in order to get a clear view and an impeccable picture of the types of questions asked from these topics. Download the EEZ UPSC notes for efficient and comprehensive preparation

Important Notes for UPSC
Indian Independence Day Sufi Movement
Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award Winners Reservation in UPSC
National Commission for Protection of Child Rights Political Parties in India
Our Apps Playstore
SSC and Bank
Other Exams
GradeStack Learning Pvt. Ltd.Windsor IT Park, Tower - A, 2nd Floor, Sector 125, Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201303
Home Practice Test Series Premium