Sessions of Parliament – Monsoon Session, Budget Session & Winter Session

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

Sessions of Parliament are planned for a regular meeting of a Parliamentary house without interruption for handling the corporation. The Parliament of India is a legislative Government body that makes laws, expresses the electorate, and manages the council through hearings and questioning in the sessions. The country currently does not possess a fixed parliamentary calendar, as the Constitution does not provide it. The Indian Parliament assembles three sessions in a year.

Sessions of Parliament commence with the budget session in January, followed by the Monsoon session from July to August, and Winter Session held in November-December. At least 55 Lok Sabha and 25 Rajya Sabha members should be present to perform a sitting of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha, respectively. This article demonstrates all the Sessions of Parliament, the types of parliamentary sessions, and their significance.  Sessions of Parliament topic is essential for UPSC exam, check out the complete details.

Session of Parliament in India

The Indian Government summons a session of Parliament. In a year, three sessions of Parliament are conducted, including several meetings. Quorum indicates the minimum number of members needed to attend the house meeting.

  • Summoning is the President’s approach to calling all the Parliament members to meet.
  • It is defined in Article 85 of the Indian Constitution.
  • Adjournment of Parliament occurs when the sitting of the House has ceased until the next appointed time of the sitting.
  • The sitting is postponed through Adjournment for a fixed time, such as weeks, days, or hours.
  • The President has the right to end a Parliament session without the abolition of the Lok Sabha house through the Prorogation process.

How Many Sessions are There in Parliament?

The break between any two Parliament sessions must be at most 6 months; hence, the Parliament must meet at least 2 times a year. The President has the control to call each Parliament house occasionally. Broadly, the session of Parliament is divided into 3 types, including the following.

Sessions of Parliament in India Duration Also known as
Budget session January End – April End or May first week Longest, Budget Session (1st session)
Monsoon session July Starting – August/September. Second session of 3 weeks
Winter session November – December. 3rd session.

Budget Session in India

It is Parliament’s first and most extended session. The budget session months are from February to May each year and are regarded as the most crucial session of Parliament among all the three.

  • The budget is typically proposed on February’s last working day.
  • The session is known to begin when the President preaches both Parliament houses.
  • It is generally separated into two phases with a break of one month between the two.
  • The members of the Parliament examine numerous budget provisions and issues related to taxation after its representation by the Finance Minister.

Monsoon Session of Parliament

The Monsoon Session of Parliament 2022 started on July 18, 2022, last time and got Adjourned Sine Die (Meeting closed without fixing any date/time for the subsequent meeting) on August 8, 2022.

  • This parliamentary session happens two months after the Budget session.
  • Issues related to the interests of the public are discussed in the Monsoon Session of Parliament.

Winter Session of Parliament

The Winter Session of Parliament 2022 usually starts in December. It is expected to have 17 sittings extended for around 23 days.

  • Winter Session is the shortest of the three sessions of Parliament.
  • It picks up problems not assessed earlier during the second Parliamentary session.
  • It makes up for the absence of legislative enterprise.

Joint Session of Parliament (Article 108)

The Indian Constitution arranges the joint session of two Parliamentary houses, the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha, to stop any stand-off between the houses.

  • The President calls the Joint Session of Parliament.
  • The Speaker governs this Parliamentary session; if they are not present, it is handled by the Lok Sabha Deputy Speaker.
  • In case both are unavailable, the Rajya Sabha Deputy Chairman supervises it.
  • If all the essential members of the Parliament are absent, any Parliamentary member can command after gaining the agreement of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

What is Adjournment of Parliament Session?

Adjournment in parliament refers to the process of temporarily suspending the proceedings of a session or a sitting of parliament before time. It basically terminates the setting, and the house meets again at another appointed date. This postponement can be for a specific time and is a decision taken by the presiding officer or the Speaker of the house.

Furthermore, if a meeting terminates without a specified time and date for the next session, it is called Adjournment sine die.

What is Proragation of Parliamentary Session?

In a parliamentary system, prorogation refers to the formal end of a session of Parliament. However, it only denotes the end of a session and not the house’s dissolution. It is a step taken by the President of India. Prorogation is an essential process in the Indian parliamentary system, as it marks the end of one session of Parliament and paves the way for a new session to begin.

Dissolution of Sessions of Parliament

The dissolution of the sessions of Parliament in India refers to the process of formally ending the term of the current Lok Sabha (lower house) or Rajya Sabha (upper house) before its normal term of five years is over. Dissolution is different from prorogation, which only ends a session of Parliament. In contrast, dissolution ends the current term of the Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha, and new elections are held to form a new Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha.

Parliament Session 2023 Dates

The Indian Parliament generally has three sessions in a year – the Budget Session, the Monsoon Session, and the Winter Session. The Monsoon session is typically the shortest, while the budget session is the longest in the year. The budget session of 2023 commenced on 31 January and will continue till 6 April. It is expected that there will be 27 sittings over a span of 66 days for the budget session.

Parliament Session 2022 Dates

The table below illustrates the 2022 Parliament session dates for the three Parliamentary sessions. The planned dates and the total number of House sittings have also been mentioned.

Parliament Session 2022 Dates
Session in Parliament Dates Number of Sittings
Budget Session January 31 – February 11, 2022

March 14 to April 8, 2022

29 sittings (Total)
Monsoon Session July 18 – August 8, 2022 16 sittings, 22 days
Winter session of Parliament December 7 to 29, 2022 17 sittings, 23 days

Sessions of Parliament UPSC

The parliamentary procedures and terminology are essential. IAS aspirants should completely comprehend their significance and utilization, as questions can be raised from this fixed portion of the IAS exam in both Prelims and Mains.

Sessions of Parliament UPSC PDF

Candidates must practice all Sessions of Parliament UPSC Previous Year Question Papers to obtain a good score in the examination. It is an important topic that covers all three sessions of Parliament and their role in examining the budget provisions.

UPSC Notes
Parliamentary Committees Zero Hour in Parliament
Motions in Parliament Joint Sitting of Parliament
Parliamentary Privileges Functions of the Parliament
Types of Majorities in Parliament Parliamentary Form of Government
Fundamental Rights Preamble of Indian Constitution
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