Difference Between Indian Government and US Government

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

The difference between Indian Government and US Government is that the Indian government is a parliamentary model, whereas the USA has a presidential system. Democracy is where people have the ultimate power to elect their state heads, and the Indian and US governments are the best examples. India is the largest democracy globally, and the American democracy is the oldest.

Difference Between Indian Government and US Government PDF

The US gained the status of a federal republic state in 1789. In contrast, India became a socialist, sovereign, democratic, secular republic in 1950 via the enactment of the Constitution. Read how to compare the parliamentary form of government with reference to India and USA and the difference between Indian Government and US Government.

Difference Between Indian Government and US Government

India and USA are two large democracies of the world. The Indian and American Governments follow similar techniques in running their offices, but striking differences set them apart. Analyze the table below and understand the most noteworthy difference between Indian democracy and American democracy.

Indian Federalism vs US Federalism

Difference Between Indian Government and US Government


Indian Government

US Government

Nature of Federalism

The Indian Constitution describes India as a Union of States containing both unitary and federal features.

Thus, the Indian Constitution is Quasi-federal.

Although both Indian and American Governments are described as Federal states, the nature of federalism in the US is more rigid and stronger than in India.

System of Governance

In India, a Parliamentary form of Government is followed.

The Indian President is elected indirectly for five years.

In the US, the Presidential form of Government is adopted.

The people directly elect the President, and he/she is elected for four years.

Upper and Lower House

The Indian Legislature consists of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.

The lower house, called the Lok Sabha, is more powerful, whose members are directly elected by the people.

In contrast, the Upper House – the Rajya Sabha, is elected indirectly every two years.

US legislature has two houses: the House of Representatives and the Senate.

The Senate is the Upper House and is more powerful as per the US federal system. Its members are directly elected.

The Senate is the strongest Upper House in the world.

Nature of the Constitution

The Constitution of India has 22 parts and 395 articles since its inception.

As of 2022, there are 25 parts with 448 articles.

The Indian Constitution lacks the rigidity of the US constitution.

The Constitution of the US is very rigid and precise, consisting of a few pages.

It has been amended only 27 times owing to the rigidity of the process involved.

Judiciary System

The Indian judiciary system can be described as rapidly developing.

The judicial system in the US is very advanced.


The Indian Constitution thrives on single citizenship.

The US Constitution allows dual citizenship to its citizens.

Difference Between Indian Democracy and American Democracy

The Indian and American Democracies are the strongest democracies in the world. The Indian Democracy follows a Parliamentary form of government, where the President is the nominal head with specified powers, while the Prime Minister is the real executive of the State.

Whereas in American democracy, the Head of the State and Head of the Government is the President, an executive elected by US citizens.

Difference Between Indian Democracy and American Democracy

Indian Democracy

American Democracy

India has a complicated, multi-party system.

The US has a bi-party system.

The Union holds more power and authority. India is often described as ‘India is a quasi federation with unitary tilt.’

The centre and states have different laws, and states are more powerful than the centre.

In a Parliamentary form of democracy, the Head of the government is the Prime Minister, elected indirectly by elected representatives of different constituencies. The Prime Minister holds more power than the President.

In the Presidential form of Government, the President is the most powerful figure.

Compare the Parliamentary Form of Government with Reference to India and USA

Federalism is a system of government where the powers are divided between the Centre and states or provinces. In federalism, the Centre and the States/Province are autonomous.

  • The Indian Constitution has federal and unitary structures that contain all the features of a union and federation.
  • The Indian model of the federation is popularly known as a quasi-federal system.
  • Whereas US federalism is robust and more rigid, with more unitary characteristics.

Difference Between Indian Government and US Government UPSC

The Difference Between Indian and American Government is a relevant topic to study for the UPSC Exam. The topic is covered under the Polity section of the UPSC Syllabus, and questions are majorly asked in the UPSC Prelims.

To cover the topic of the difference between Indian Democracy and American Democracy, one must go through the UPSC GS 2 Syllabus and do the essential readings from the NCERT Books for UPSC and Polity Books for UPSC.

Indian Government

The Indian Constitution is the most elaborate Constitution in the world, with 25 parts and 12 schedules, containing about 448 articles. The main federal features of the Indian Constitution are:

  • Written Constitution: The Constitution of India is a written and elaborate document.
  • Rigid Constitution: The Indian Constitution is considered a rigid one because all the provisions pertaining to Union-State relations can only be amended by the joint actions of the State Legislatures and the Union Parliament.
  • Bicameral Legislature: The Constitution of India provides for a bicameral Legislature at the Centre consisting of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. The Lok Sabha consists of the elected representatives of the people. The Rajya Sabha mainly consists of representatives elected by the State Legislative Assemblies.
  • Polity of Dual Government: India, as a federal system, has a Central and State Government.
  • Independent Judiciary: The Indian judiciary is independent and supreme. The Supreme Court of India can declare a law unconstitutional or ultra Vires if it contravenes any provisions of the Constitution.
  • Division of Power: The Indian Government has a clear division of powers. The Seventh Schedule of Indian Constitution contains three Legislative Lists – Union, State, and Concurrent list that demarcate the administration subject.
  • Supremacy of the Constitution: The courts of law ensure that the dignity of the Indian Constitution is upheld at all costs and that no organ of the State violates any provision of the Constitution.

US Government

The President is not dependent on the power of his party in Congress (legislative body). He remains in power for the four years of his tenure unless he is impeached or hindered. US Government follows the Presidential form of government.

  • In the US Government, the President is the supreme head of the state.
  • The ministers of the President are referred to as the presidential form of government.
  • US Government conducts bi-party elections.
  • The US is a developed nation and has a contemporary judicial system.
  • The US offers double citizenship, meaning an individual can be a resident of two nations.
  • The judge has his responsibility as long as he can fulfil his tasks.


Key Difference Between Indian Government and US Government

The key Difference Between Indian Government and US Government is that the Indian Constitution depicts the country as a Union of States including both unitary and national features, whereas US Government is more strict and more powerful than India.

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