Article 371: Part 21 of Indian Constitution, Special Provisions for Some States

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

Article 371 of Indian Constitution concerns itself with the various special provisions for states mentioned in it. It has various amendments that range from Article 371 A to J. They consist of different provisions for different states. Part 21 of Indian Constitution refers to all the laws created for various states of the country. It consists of various articles that have temporary, transitional, and special provisions. Out of these, Article 371 is the most essential article within part XXI of the constitution. These laws pertain to India as an entity made up of its states and various unions of states.

We have discussed various special provisions for some states mentioned under Article 371 in this article. It is important for a candidate to understand about the Part 21 of Indian Constitution, in order to be fully aware of the special provisions of the 12 states mentioned under it.

Article 371

Article 371 in Part XXI of the Indian Constitution comprises the special provisions for twelve states of India that are Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Telangana, Sikkim, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Goa, Manipur and Karnataka. Article 371A to 371J each has provisions regarding one of these states.

Article 371 of Indian Constitution was created with the purpose to protect the interests of the population belonging to backward regions. The provisions within it protect the economic and cultural interests of backward classes. Article 371 also ensures that the law is not compromised in these areas in any way.

Part 21 of Indian Consitution

Part XXI of Indian Consitution comprises various temporary and permanent provisions in regard to different states of the country. These articles include Article 371 to Article 392. Part 21 of the constitution earlier also included the controversial Article 370 which was revoked in 2019.

Article 371 of Part 21 of Indian Constitution is crucial to various states. It consists of the provisions provided to some states that ensure their proper functioning. Apart from these provisions for states, Part 21 also consists of other articles in relation to the power of the

President and their powers to deal with difficult situations in times of crisis.

Article 371 States List

Article 371 was not originally a part of the constitution. It was added later as a way to protect the interest of local inhabitants. There have been various amendments within which each defines a special provision for a state. The list of these articles and the states they represent are provided below.

Amendments in Article 371

States List

Article 371

Vidarbha and Marathwada regions of Maharashtra and Saurashtra and Kutch regions of Gujarat.

Article 371A

Naga hills and Tuensang area of Nagaland

Article 371B

Bodoland territorial area of Assam

Article 371C


Article 371 D

Andhra Pradesh

Article 371E

Special Provision for establishing central universities in Andhra Pradesh

Article 371F


Article 371G


Article 371H

Arunachal Pradesh

Article 371I


Article 371J


Special Provisions for Some States

Some states in India have been granted special provisions under Article 371 of Indian Consitution. These provisions authorise various acts to be performed, keeping in mind the well-being of citizens. The list of special provisions for some states is listed below.

Article 371: Provisions for Maharashtra and Gujarat

Under Article 371, the Governor of Maharashtra and Gujarat is authorized by the President to do the following.

  • Establish development boards for the regions listed in Article 371 and ensure regular reports are made and presented to the state government.
  • Allocate funds dedicated to the growth and development of the regions.
  • Arrange technical education for the locals for enhanced career opportunities.

Article 371 A: Nagaland Provisions

Article 371A ensures that the cultural and religious practices of the Naga population are maintained and encouraged. It also allows various other things under its provisions, which are listed below.

  • Parliamentary Acts not applying to Nagas, except for special situations, in terms of ownership of lands, legal system, administration, etc.
  • The state government has special powers to deal with the hostility of Nagas.
  • The governor must ensure that the central government funds are being allocated for which they are released.
  • In Tuensang District, a special council of 35 members is established to ensure peace and proper administration of the region.

Article 371 D to E: Provisions for Andhra Pradesh and Telangana

Articles 371D and 371E refer to provisions for Andhra Pradesh and also extend to Telangana. These provisions include:

  • Ensuring equal opportunities for people in terms of education and employment.
  • Establishing Central universities in the state.

Article 371F: Provisions for Sikkim

The 36th Amendment Act of 1975 gave Sikkim the status of a full-fledged state. With this, Article 371-F contains special provisions that include.

  • Sikkim Legislative Assembly should have more than 30 members
  • Sikkim to have one seat in Lok Sabha.
  • Governor is authorised to have special powers to ensure peace in the state.
  • The laws of states in the Indian union can also be extended to Sikkim.

Article 371J: Provisions for Karnataka

Article 371-J refers to the provisions for Karnataka that include the following.

  • Separate development boards are created for the Hyderabad-Karnataka region, the reports of which must be presented in the legislative assembly annually.
  • Ensuring equal distribution and allocation of funds for the development of the region.
  • The reservation for students in institutions and the reservation of posts in government offices for people who belong to the region.

Provisions for Other States as per Article 371

  • Article 371 B states that the President holds power to create a committee of members from Tribal Areas who are elected in the Assam Legislative Assembly for important purposes which will be specified.
  • Article 371 C authorises the President, with special provisions in Manipur, to create a committee of Hilly Areas members elected in the Legislative Assembly. The Governor will be responsible for the proper administration and must submit yearly reports.
  • Article 371 G refers to protecting the rights of Mizos and ensuring their legal and customary practices are not disturbed. The state must also have at least 40 members in the legislative assembly.
  • Article 371 H refers to provisions made in Arunachal Pradesh that provide the Governor power to take decisions to ensure proper administration. Also, the state legislative assembly must have at least 30 members.
  • Article 371 I states that the Legislative Assembly in Goa should have at least 30 members.

Special Provisions for Some States UPSC

Part 21 of Indian Consitution is an important segment of the UPSC Exam. It is essential as it contains Article 371, which is important from the exam perspective. There are special provisions for some states of India, and the questions related to them are commonly asked in the UPSC Prelims. Candidates preparing for the exam must thoroughly study Article 371 to score well.

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