When a group of the flip flop is used to store a word ( a group of bits) then it is called register. To store n bits, n flip flops are cascaded in the register. If in a register, the binary information can be moved from stage to stage, this type of registers is called shift registers. According to data movement in a register, shift registers can be classified as
- Serial Input Serial Output (SISO)
- Serial Input Parallel Output (SIPO)
- Parallel Input Serial Output (PISO)
- Parallel Input Parallel Output (PIPO)
Serial Input Serial Output (SISO)
- In registers edge trigger circuit used to make circuit synchronous.
- If no clock is applied then get same data which is stored.
- In N bits SISO registers to provide N bits data, Serially in require N clock pulse, and Serially out require (N-1) clock pulse.
Serial Input Parallel Output (SIPO)
- To provide N-bit data: Serial in requires N clock pulse, and Parallel out requires no clock pulse.
- SIPO can provide n × tCIK delay to the input.
- SIPO can convert serial data or temporal code to parallel or serial code.
Parallel Input Serial Output (PISO)
- If control = 0 then it acts as parallel input;
- If control = 1 then it acts as serial output;
- To provide parallel input, one clock pulse is required.
- To provide N bits serial output, it requires (N-1) clock pulse.
- PISO can convert special code to temporal code.
Parallel Input Parallel Output (PIPO)
- In PIPO register for parallel input number of pulse required is 1 clock pulse.
- In PIPO register for parallel output number of pulse required is 0 clock pulse.
- PIPO register cannot be used as a shift register.
- It is used for temporal storage of data in microcontroller, DSP, CPU etc.
Summary of Registers
- A counter is a sequential logic circuit capable of counting the number of clock pulses arriving at its clock input.
- The sequence of count may be ascending, descending or non-sequence.
- For a counter circuit having n flip flops, Maximum possible states (N) = 2n
- If N = 2n , the counter acts as a binary counter.
- If N < 2n , the counter the non-binary counter.
- It counter is capable to count from 0 to 2n-1.
- MOD number is the Number of states present in a counter is known as modulus count or MOD number.
- For n-flip flops, the counter will have 2n different states then this counter is said MOD- 2n counter.
- MOD number indicates frequency division obtained from the last flip flops.
- Cascaded two counters:
- MOD-MN counter:
- Overall states of combined counter = MN
- Input frequency = f
- Output frequency f = f/(MN)
3. Classification of Counters
Based upon the applying clock pulse, counters are classified into two categories.
- Synchronous counter
- Asynchronous counter (ripple counter)
4. Toggle Mode Circuit
These are frequency dividers circuit.
Other Toggle Mode Circuit
5. Asynchronous Counter (Ripple counter)
- A different clock pulse is applied to different flip flops.
- All flip flops are operating in toggle mode.
- In asynchronous counter flip flop applied with external clock acts as LSB bit.
3-bit Ripple Up Counter
- Input clock is applied at LSB bit.
- It n-bit ripple counter maximum possible states are 2n.
- Bit ripple up counter counts from 0 to 2n - 1.
- If all states are used then with input frequency f, then output frequency will be f/2n
- Calculation of Time Period of Flip Flop: In n-bit ripple counter if propagation delay of each flip flop is tpd(FF), then the time period of the clock is:
- Maximum Clock Frequency:
- Due to propagation delays of flip flops decoding errors are present.
- Clear and preset are known as asynchronous input to flip flop.
- In any ripple counter, the following conditions will fulfil
- Negative edge trigger and Q as clock ⇒ up counter
- Positive edge trigger and Q as clock ⇒ up counter
3-bit Ripple Down Counter
- Positive edge trigger and Q as clock ⇒ down counter
- Negative edge trigger and Q as clock ⇒ down counter
Non-binary Ripple Counter
Decode counter or BCD counter is an example of a non-binary counter. It requires 4 flip flops.
- Used state = 10 and unused states = 6 → (24 -10)
- Output frequency of BCD counter = f/10
- For making non-binary counter clear (clr) signal is used.
- c1r is active high, and (clr)' is active low.
6. Synchronous Counters
In this type of counter, there are no connections of first flip flop output to a clock input of the next flip flop.
Ring Counter: It is a circular shift register with only flip flop being set at any particular time, all others are cleared. It is a shift register with feedback.
- In ring counter, if feedback is used the number of states is reduced.
- With n flip flops maximum states = n.
- Number of unused states in ring counter = 2n – n
- Maximum Clock Frequency: If input frequency is f, then at the output of every flip flop we get f/N frequency. In ring counter, if propagation delay of each flip flop is tpd(FF) then
Jhonson Ring Counter: Jhonson ring counter is also called as a Twisted ring counter, Switch tail counter, Creeping counter, or Mobies counter.
- In n - bit Jhonson counter maximum used states = 2n, unused states = 2n - 2n.
- If input clock frequency is f, the output frequency of each flip flop is f /2n and the duty cycle is 50%.
- A disadvantage of Jhonson Ring Counter: Lockout may occur. To decode each state one, two input AND or NOR gate is used.
If you are preparing for GATE and ESE, avail of Online Classroom Program to get unlimited access to all the live structured courses and mock tests from the following link :