What is Ulgulan or Great Tumult?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 9th, 2023

Birsa Munda founded the Great Tumult or Ulgulan Movement to protest against the exploitation of the local government and the prejudice of the tribal people. The Chotanagpur Tenancy Act, which barred tribal lands from going to non-tribals and protected their land rights for the foreseeable future, resulted in the movement, albeit unsuccessfully.

Ulgulan Or Great Tumult Movement

The Munda Rebellion was one of the prominent 19th-century tribal uprisings on the Indian subcontinent. Between 1899 and 1900, Birsa Munda led the agitation in Ranchi’s southern region.

  • An uprising to establish Munda Raj or Munda sovereignty in this region was known as the Ulgulan, also known as “the Great Tumult.”
  • In 1874, the British replaced the historic Khuntkari system used by the Munda tribe with the Zamindari system.
  • The Zamindari system was put into place by creating the zamindars (landlords) classes and ryots (tenants).
  • After the economy was privatized, the tribal people were left with no choice but to rely on currency to cover their living expenses. As a result, they were dependent on the moneylenders.


What is Ulgulan or Great Tumult?

Birsa Munda founded the Ulgulan or Great Tumult campaign, in response to the oppression and exploitation of tribal people by the local administration. The Chotanagpur Tenancy Act, which barred the transfer of tribal lands to non-tribals and safeguarded their land rights for the foreseeable future, was a result of the movement despite its failure.

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