What are the Causes for the Uneven Distribution of Population in the World?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 9th, 2023

The causes for the uneven distribution of population in the world are geographical, social, cultural, and economic factors. Some areas are densely populated while others are sparsely populated. According to the latest figures, the major metropolitan area of Tokyo, including the cities of Yokohama, Saitama, Sagamihara, Kawasaki, and Chiba, is the most populous area in the world.

Causes for Uneven Distribution of Population in the World

The causes for the uneven distribution of population in the world are explained below.

Geographical factors:

The 5 different Geographical factors are Topography, Climate, Soil, Water, and Minerals. There should be favorable climatic conditions, and the availability of mineral resources influences population distribution. Example: Indo-Gangetic plains.

Factor Role Example
Topography More suitable for farming activities, manufacturing activities, etc. Densely populated area – Ganga plains in India
Very thinly populated – Alps, Himalayas, and Andes Mountain areas.
Climate Extreme climates are avoided Cold polar regions – Canada, Russia, Antarctica, etc.
Hot climatic regions – Sahara Desert, Thar Desert, etc.
Soil Fertile soil carries out agricultural activities. Nile in Egypt, Chang Jiang in China, Brahmaputra and Ganga in India
Water Abundant availability of freshwater River valleys – Dense population.
Deserts – thinly populated.
Minerals Abundant availability of minerals Densely populated:
Middle East – Oil industries
South Africa – Diamond mines

Social and cultural factors: Areas with better education, health, and housing facilities attract people and, thus, are more populated than those with poor facilities. Example: Jerusalem.

Economic factors: Factors like greater communication, transportation, and industry are responsible for better employment opportunities; thus, people are attracted to these sectors. Example: Osaka.

Population Density

The number of people living per unit area is referred to as population density. Areas with more favorable economic, geographical, and social factors tend to have higher population densities.

  • Some of the most densely populated countries in the world are Singapore, China, and Bangladesh.
  • In India, the most densely populated states are West Bengal and Bihar.

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