Through a Focus on Any Two Countries, Explain How Nations Developed Over the Nineteenth Century

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

By focusing on any two countries, Italy and Britain, nationalism created nation-states in place of dynastic empires of Europe. A nation-state was one in which most of its people, as opposed to its rulers, came to have a feeling of common identity and shared ancestry. It was shaped by the deeds and struggles of leaders and average individuals. In place of Europe’s hereditary empires, nation-states were established throughout the nineteenth century due to nationalism.

Nations Developed Over the Nineteenth Century

Two significant European nations that had significant growth during the nineteenth century were Italy and Great Britain. Both of these nations were formerly governed by several princely powers, and as a result, until the middle of the 19th century, these areas were divided into numerous smaller independent portions. The common people of all these states came together to form common governments in the 19th century when there were several large-scale revolutions in different parts of Europe, and people gained more education.

Development and Unification of Italy

  • Development of Italy: Victor Emmanuel II was elected as the leader of a united Italy in 1861. Italy was divided into seven states in the middle of the 19th century. The Central sections were governed by the Pope, the Northern regions by the Austrian Habsburgs, and the Southern portions by the Spanish Bourbon kings. An Italian noble house had power over one of the seven states.
  • Unification of Italy: Italy has endured political division throughout its lengthy history. There were the varied Habsburg Empire and several scattered dynastic entities. Mazzini aimed for a united and independent Italy. To drive the Spanish occupiers from these regions of Italy, a sizable contingent of armed volunteers under the command of Garibaldi marched into the Kingdom of Two Sicilies and South Italy in 1860. They won the support of the rural population. As a result, in 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was crowned as the new king of Italy. Cavour became the first prime minister of Italy after the creation of the United Kingdom of Italy.

Development and Significant Growth of Great Britain

  • Development of Britain: The nation’s formation was an odd instance. Before the eighteenth century, there was no such thing as a British nation. The inhabitants of the British Isles were mostly Scots, English, Irish, and Welsh. Each of these ethnic groups has its own political and cultural traditions.
  • The Subjugation of Ireland by England: After the failed United Irishmen (1798) uprising under the leadership of Wolfe Tone, Ireland was forcibly absorbed into the United Kingdom in 1801.
  • Scotland–Subjugation of Culture by England: England was permitted to have influence over Scotland under the Act of Union (1707). This Act joined Scotland and England to form the “United Kingdom of Great Britain.” After this, English lawmakers dominated the British Parliament. The United Kingdom of Great Britain has now been calculated as England + Wales + Scotland + Ireland.


Through a Focus on Any Two Countries, Explain How Nations Developed Over the Nineteenth Century

Italy and Britain were the two nations that received the most attention under nationalism, which replaced the hereditary empires of Europe with nation-states. Conservatives frequently used nationalist sentiments to advance state power and seize European political control. This may be seen in the process of the unification of the nations of Italy and Britain. Throughout the nineteenth century, nationalism led to the establishment of nation-states in place of Europe’s hereditary empires.

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