PVTG – Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups in India, List of Tribes, PVTG Full Form

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

PVTG or the Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups are the most vulnerable among the tribal groups. PVTGs are identified by the Government of India as a primitive group of tribals for the convenience of delivering services through different policies and interventions. The PVTGs in India were first identified by the Dhebar Commission.

About 8.6% of the total population in India represents the tribal population. It becomes the moral responsibility of the government to protect the interests of the most vulnerable tribal groups who are living without social security benefits. The topic holds importance mostly in the mains exam, under the social justice segment.

PVTG – Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups

PVTGs are more vulnerable among the tribal groups. Due to the fact that more evolved and assertive tribal groups in India consume a significant portion of the funds allocated for tribal development, PVTGs require greater funding specifically for their growth. 8.6% of the population in India is made up of tribal people.

The majority of PVTGs are homogenous, have a tiny population, are physically remote, lack written language, have relatively simple technology, and change occurs at a slower rate.


The Dhebar Commission established Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs) in 1973 as a distinct category of tribal groups that are less advanced. The PTGs were renamed PVTGs by the Indian government in 2006.

PVTGs in India [Latest News]

The Pradhan Mantri PVTG Development Mission would be established in order to ameliorate the socioeconomic circumstances of the especially vulnerable tribal groups (PVTGs), according to the Finance Minister’s statement in the Union Budget 2023–24.

The Finance Minister also announced that, as part of the Development Action Plan for the Scheduled Tribes, Rs. 15,000 crores would be made available over the course of the following three years to carry out the Mission.

History of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups

Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs), the least advanced of the tribal tribes, were established as a separate category by the Dhebar Commission in 1973. In 2006, the Indian government changed the PTGs’ name to PVTGs (Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups).

Against this backdrop, the Government of India started to designate the most vulnerable tribal tribes as a new category called PVTGs and proclaimed 52 such groups. In 1993, another 23 groups were added to the category, bringing the total number of PVTGs to 75, out of 705 Scheduled Tribes.

The majority of the 75 listed PVTGs are found in Odisha, followed by Andhra Pradesh.

PVTG Full Form

PVTG stands for Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups. The PVTG, as a distinct category, was born out of the observation of the Dhebar Commission in 1973. PVTG are identified as the most vulnerable inhabitants residing in the less developed regions of India.

  • They reside in different topographies such as hills, plains, forests, or any remote area.
  • According to the estimates and information provided by the census, there are 12 PVTGs that have a population of more than 50,000 and the other groups of PVTG have a population of 1000 or less than it.
  • Saharityas are a group among the PVTGs that represents the highest population whereas Sentinelets and Andamanese are very less populated.

Distribution of PVTGs in India

The PVTGs have been majorly identified in 18 states and the union territory of the Andaman & Nicobar Islands. They are largely distributed in different parts of India as per the 2011 census data.

Name of the States/Union Territories PVTGs Tribes
Andhra Pradesh and Telangana Bodo Gadaba, Bodo Poroja, Chenchu, Dongria Khond, Gutob Gadaba, Khond Poroja, Kolam, Kondareddis, Konda Savaras, Parengi Poroja, Thoti.
PVTG in Jharkhand & Bihar Asurs, Birhor, Birja, Hill Kharia, Konvas, Mal Paharia, Savar
Gujarat Kathodi, Kohvalia, Padhar, Siddi, Kolgha
Karnataka Jenu Kuruba, Koraga
Kerala Cholanaikayan, Kadar, Kattunayakan, Kurumbas, Koraga
Madhya Pradesh and Chattisgarh Abujh Macias, Baigas, Bharias, Hill Korbas, Kamars, Saharias, Birhor
Maharashtra Katkaria, Kolam, Maria Gond
Manipur Marram Nagas
PVTG in Odisha Birhor, Bondo, Didayi, Dongria-Khond, Juangs, Kharias, Lodhas, Mankidias, Paudi Bhuyans, Lanjia Sauras
Rajasthan Seharias
Tamil Nadu Kattunayakans, Kotas, Kurumbas, Irulas, Paniyans, Todas
Tripura Reangs
Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand Buxas, Rajis
PVTG in Andaman and Nicobar Great Andamanese, Jarawas, Onges, Sentinelese, Shorn Pens

PVTG Criteria for Livelihoods

The livelihood options for Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups cover a wide range that entails food gathering, collection of non-timber forest produce, hunting, shifting cultivation, livestock farming, and artisan works. The non-timber forest produce includes the products like honey, gum, amla, bamboo, shrubs, fuelwood, dry leaves, nuts, sprouts, wax, medicinal plants, roots, and tubers.

  • The major objective behind the collection of forest products is consumption.
  • The extra amount of products that are left after consumption is sold to the middlemen. The PVTGs are victims of exploitation by the middlemen.
  • The prominent changes in the environment that have a huge impact on the forests accompanied by the legislation regarding the conservation of forests are serious challenges to the interests of the PVTGs.

Health Issues in Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups

There exist improper conditions of health among the PVTGs which are backed by the reasons such as extreme poverty, lack of access to healthcare facilities, low literacy rates, economic backwardness, unsafe drinking water, malnutrition, poor sanitation, and so on.

The diseases that are commonly found among PVTGs are:

  • Anaemia
  • Respiratory diseases
  • Malaria
  • Gastro-intestinal infections
  • Skin infections

Government Schemes for PVTGs

As a developmental intervention by the government, the Ministry of Tribal Affairs administers the “Development of Especially Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)” Scheme, only for PVTG Tribes. It intends to provide comprehensive support for the socio-economic betterment of primitive tribal groups.

  • Under this PVTG scheme, facilities are provided in the areas of housing, distribution of land, construction of roads, agricultural development, facilities for livestock rearing, provisions of energy security, and social security.
  • Financial assistance is extended to protect the interests of these tribal groups and facilitate their survival.
  • A development plan for the time span of five years is prepared under the scheme which is referred to as the Conservation-cum-Development (CCD) plan.
  • An expert committee appointed by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs approves the CCD plan.
  • The CCD plan identifies a particular territory of the PVTGs and prepares a financial plan to implement the welfare programs.
  • The progress made by the scheme is assessed by the concerned Ministry and NITI Aayog.

Additionally, PVTGs are given preference under the Special Central Assistance (SCA) to Tribal Sub-Scheme (TSS), Grants under Article 275(1) of the Indian Constitution, Grants-in-Aid to Voluntary Organizations working for the Welfare of Schedule Tribes, and Strengthening of Education among ST Girls in Low Literacy Districts schemes.

Reproductive Rights of PVTGs

It was reported that the PVTGs were not allowed to use contraceptives till 2018 due to their declining and stagnant population. A Public Interest Litigation was filed in the High Court of Chhattisgarh which questioned the actions of the government in depriving the tribal groups of their reproductive rights.

This was particularly concerned with the Baigas of Chhattisgarh. The High court ruled that there is a violation of the Right to Privacy under Article 21 of the Constitution. As a result, the tribal group has conferred the right to use contraceptives.

PVTG UPSC Short Notes

The active participation of people, organizations, healthcare workers, and other stakeholders is necessitated for the overall development of the PVTGs which forms an integral part of India’s composite culture. This will lead the nation to evolve as a civilized, inclusive, and equitable society.

Go through the basic highlights of PVTGs to understand the topic better for the upcoming UPSC Exam.

PVTGs Details
PVTG Full Form Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups
PVTG Full Form in Hindi असुरक्षित जनजातीय समूह
Total PVTGs in India 75 PVTGS in India across 15 States+UTs
PVTG Comes Under Which Ministry Ministry of Tribal Affairs


The Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups find is one of the essential sections of the GS Paper 2 Syllabus. As 8.6% of the population in India comprises tribal people, it is important to be well aware of their distribution and livelihood.

Practicing the UPSC Mains Question Papers will help candidates get an idea about the sections that are frequently asked. Moreover, it is also advised that the students must be updated with the current affairs, to write a more dynamic answer in the UPSC Mains. The PVTG UPSC Notes would be quite helpful in this regard.

Questions on PVTG

Question: Who exactly are India’s Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG)? Describe the numerous problems that these groups are facing. What actions has the government made to improve PVTGs’ condition?

Question: List the factors used for determining PVTGs.

Question: Discuss the Pradhan Mantri PVTG ( Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group) Development Mission in-depth as it relates to the Union Budget 2023–2024.

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