Artificial Intelligence: AI in India, Challenges and Future | AI UPSC Notes

By Balaji

Updated on: February 28th, 2023

Artificial Intelligence refers to the ability of machines to behave like human beings. Artificial Intelligence has the power to take over a variety of tasks, and enhance connectivity and productivity. The capabilities of AI have expanded rapidly, and due to this, its utility is growing in a number of fields. Artificial Intelligence, also popular as Industrial Revolution 4.0, has been making a huge impact on technological and scientific innovation in a wide range of fields.

The following concepts- Artificial Intelligence in India, Challenges, Global Development, and Future Prospects of AI, will be easier for you to comprehend after reading this article. Given that it has become popular in the current context, artificial intelligence is a significant theme for the UPSC examination.

Table of content

  • 1. Artificial Intelligence [AI] (more)
  • 2. Artificial Intelligence as a Technology (more)
  • 3. Applications of Artificial Intelligence (more)
  • 4. India and Artificial Intelligence (more)
  • 5. Artificial Intelligence in India (more)
  • 6. Artificial Intelligence Research in India (more)
  • 7. Challenges of AI in India (more)
  • 8. Limitations of AI (more)
  • 9. Future of Artificial Intelligence (more)
  • 10. Dark web and AI Relations (more)
  • 11. Artificial Intelligence UPSC (more)
  • 12. Artificial Intelligence UPSC Questions (more)

Artificial Intelligence [AI]

Artificial Intelligence refers to the ability of the machine to have human intelligence processes like learning, thinking, decision-making, and problem-solving.

It is a branch of computer science that aims to create computers or machines with human intelligence. Artificial Intelligence includes technologies like pattern recognition, machine learning, neural networks, big data, self-algorithms, etc. AI is a complex technology that involves feeding particular data into the machine and making it react as per various situations.

Artificial Intelligence is about creating self-learning patterns that would help the machines to find out answers to the question like a human would do.

Artificial Intelligence as a Technology

Robotic automation powered by hardware differs from artificial intelligence. AI successfully completes frequent, high-volume computerized tasks rather than automating manual ones. Machine learning and artificial intelligence are frequently used interchangeably.

Artificial Intelligence UPSC Notes

Machine learning is just one component of the larger field of artificial intelligence (AI), which also encompasses technologies like inference algorithms, natural language processing, neutron networks, etc. Recently Artificial Intelligence has gained prominence due to its various applications ranging from the military to the healthcare field.

Artificial Intelligence was first introduced in 1956 by Jon McCarthy at the Dartmouth conference, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Applications of Artificial Intelligence

Applied AI contributes largely to economic and social development in all countries of the world. Many countries have started investing heavily in Artificial Intelligence. Artificial Intelligence has proven to add benefits in a wide range of sectors globally and is expected to be a key weapon for various firms. The following are the application of AI in various fields.

  • Healthcare- some of the highly emerging AI applications in healthcare sections are personalized treatment, AI-driven diagnostics, imaging diagnostics, and identification of potential pandemics.
  • Agriculture- AI also plays a vital role in driving the food revolution. AI addresses many challenges like excess pesticide use, inadequate demand prediction, and lack of assured irrigation. AI has the potential to enhance crop production, detect pest attacks, predication crop prices, and real-time advisory.
  • Retail- In the retail sector, Artificial Intelligence offers image-based searches, personalized suggestions, and preference-based browsing. It improves inventory management, and delivery management, and anticipates the customer’s demand.
  • Transportation- AI applications in the transportation section include traffic management, delivery management, and monitoring and maintaining the predictive engine.
  • Manufacturing- Artificial Intelligence impacts supply chain management, maintenance, production, in-plant logistics, quality assurance, and warehousing.
  • Smart cities- Artificial Intelligence helps in meeting the demands of a rapidly growing population and enhances the quality of life. Better crowd management, traffic control, and reducing congestion are some of the potential uses of AI.
  • Energy- The use of AI is also included in the forecasting and modeling of the energy system to reduce unpredictability. AI in the energy sector focuses on increasing power efficiency and strengthening renewable energy systems.
  • Education and Skilling- In recent years the introduction of AI has played a vital role in the education sector of India by providing solutions for a better learning experience through automating, personalized learning, easing administrative tasks, etc.
  • Intelligence- Automation is the method of automatically operating a system or process. Robots can be programmed to conduct large, repeatable duties usually performed by people and, due to their agility and adaptability to altering conditions, different from IT automatics.
  • Security- At the 20th e-governance conference in India, it was discussed that cybersecurity can be increased by AI and it has to be explored.
  • Speech recognition- There are smart systems that can hear and understand the language in terms of terms and meanings while people talk to it. It is capable of handling various accents, slang words, background sounds, human noise shifts owing to cold, etc.

India and Artificial Intelligence

According to Industry analysts that by 2035 the Artificial Intelligence market can add up to $957 billion to India’s economy. The government and private organizations have already started many programs and initiatives to strengthen the AI section in India, which would add to the country’s economic and social progress.

  • The Indian Government launched the National AI Portal of India in May 2020, which is a one-stop digital platform for AI-related developments in the country. This portal is a knowledge-sharing tool and acts as a platform for getting information about AI jobs.
  • The government also launched the Responsible AI for Youth Programme. The aim of this program is to give young students a platform to enhance the mew-age tech mindset in students, and AI skill sets and make the ready for the future.
  • One of the biggest steps toward the AI revolution in India was India’s participation in GPAI- Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence. In June 2020, India became a part of the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence. GPAI is a multi-stakeholder international initiative.
  • AI for All- India’s Artificial Intelligence Strategy aims to build AI solutions with the intent to make India the AI Garage of the world. It highlights the development through the use of Artificial Intelligence technologies and makes India a trusted nation that the world would depend on for AI-related work.
  • The Central Board of Secondary Education has introduced Artificial Intelligence into the curriculum from 2020 onwards.

Artificial Intelligence in India

The NITI Aayog-prepared National Artificial Intelligence Policy for India has outlined the best course of action for utilizing AI’s capability in a variety of industries. By utilizing such dynamic data, artificial intelligence methods and initiatives help India meet societal requirements in sectors like healthcare, education, agriculture, smart cities, and infrastructure, including smart mobility and transportation.

By 2027, India’s AI market is projected to reach a value of $71.0 billion. Strong IT infrastructure, a thriving data economy, and significant expenditures made by the government and businesses in digitalization are all contributing to India’s continuously growing Artificial Intelligence sector.

Artificial Intelligence Research in India

Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems (IM-ICPS) has suggested the following four-tier framework for promoting AI research in India:

  • CROSS (Centre for Research On Sub-Systems)
  • CASTLE (Center for Advanced Studies, Translational Research, and Leadership)
  • ICON (International Centres of New Knowledge)
  • CETIT (Centre of Excellence in Technology Innovation and Transfer)

AIRAWAT (AI Research, Analytics, and Knowledge Assimilation Platform)

With a sizable, power-efficient AI computing infrastructure and cutting-edge AI processing, AIRAWAT will be a virtualization technology for big data analytics and assimilation.

In order to support research, development, and the creation of a wide range of new implementations for the support of innovations in the fields of Agriculture and Healthcare, AIRAWAT will encourage the advancement of AI-based developments in speech recognition, image recognition, and the processing of natural languages.

Challenges of AI in India

The rising interest in AI has materialized, despite India’s attention to the topic being significantly less than that of China or the USA. The difficulties presented by artificial intelligence are centered around the following themes:

  • Low adoption of AI in corporate processes and high resource costs
  • Absence of enabling data ecosystems Low research intensity in AI
  • An unattractive intellectual property regime does not encourage research and adoption
  • Lack of chances for skill development, personnel
  • AI knowledge regulations for security, privacy, and ethics that are unclear

Another big problem is the lack of awareness in resolving business-related problems in most private and government agencies. This problem has led to the scarcity of AI professionals which is obstructing the growth of Artificial Intelligence in India.

Limitations of AI

The future of Artificial Intelligence is still unclear, even though the introduction of GPT-3 represents an important step forward. There are still some restrictions on modern technology. Some of the limitations of Artificial Intelligence are listed below:

  • Access to Data: Data has replaced oil as one of the most valuable commodities today and evolved into a new form of money.
  • Bias: It’s extremely alarming how biases can infiltrate data-modeling techniques (which power AI). The nuances of biased AI go far beyond just corrupted data.
  • Defamatory Attacks: Artificial Intelligence isn’t particularly suited to adapt to changes in circumstances because it isn’t human. This inability to adapt draws attention to a serious security weakness that has not yet been adequately fixed.
  • Against Human Labor: The advent of machinery and intelligent robots in the manufacturing and services industries is decreasing employment opportunities for humans which is a serious issue for countries like India where employment generation is a major challenge.

Future of Artificial Intelligence

The world’s IT infrastructure is centered in India. The businesses and talent in the nation are the obvious candidates to add intelligence to all digitalization. There is a sizable potential opportunity for India’s services industry to meet the rising demand for data cleansing and human-augmented AI training in web search training, data labeling, content moderation, etc.

India has the opportunity to establish itself highly in among the AI-powered nations globally. We have pointed out a few things that would help to strengthen the AI structure in India.

  • Research in AI: Both core and applied research help the commercialization and utilization of any emerging technology. To build an AI strategy in India, a high amount of dedication and effort is required.
  • The Advent of AI Wave: Even though India seems well-positioned to take advantage of the AI systems through its youth potential and advanced IT sector, the advantage can change quickly as there is a lack of availability of qualified faculty and researchers. To make the best out of the AI wave in the future government need to take the right initiatives and make AI development a national priority.
  • Fast Adoption: The data indicates that only 22% of Indian firms use Artificial Intelligence in their business process. It shows that the adoption of AI has been slow. The government needs to take steps toward AI promotion.
  • Privacy, Ethics, Security, and AI: Artificial intelligence will undoubtedly mark the turning point in the development of technology. There has never been a significant degree of decision-making dependence on algorithms and robots. Nevertheless, this dependence also puts one’s security and privacy at risk.

Dark web and AI Relations

The dark web is an anonymous, password-protected site where criminal marketplaces thrive in advertising and selling drugs, weapons, and trafficked persons. Many law enforcement agencies work hard to stop these activities but they face tremendous challenges in investigating and prosecuting the real-world people behind the dark web.

But the advancement of technology and the emergence of Artificial Intelligence have made it possible to crack down on cybercrime.

Artificial Intelligence UPSC

Artificial Intelligence is one of the most relevant topics for the UPSC Exam. The topic of AI is relevant in all stages of the exam, and one can cover it exhaustively through Current Affairs.

The topic of Artificial Intelligence is covered under GS Paper 3 Syllabus in the UPSC Mains exam. One can refer to the Science and Technology Notes to prepare for the topic better. Candidates can download the Artificial Intelligence UPSC Notes from the link provided above.

Artificial Intelligence UPSC Questions

Question: With the print state of development, Artificial Intelligence can effectively do which of the following?

  1. Bring down electricity consumption in industrial units
  2. Create meaningful short stories and songs
  3. Disease diagnosis
  4. Text-to-Speech Conversion
  5. Wireless transmission of electrical energy

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

  1. 1, 2, 3, and 5 only
  2. 1, 3, and 4 only
  3. 2, 4, and 5 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Answer: Option D

Question: Consider the following pairs of Terms sometimes seen in the news-

(1) Belle II experiment: Artificial Intelligence

(2) Blockchain technology: Digital/ Cryptocurrency

(3) CRISPR — Cas9: Particle Physics

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: Option B

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