Rabi Crops and Kharif Crops – Season, Examples, Chart

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

Zaid, Rabi crops, and Kharif crops are a major division of the crops based on the seasons per year. Various types of crops are produced in India, such as rice, wheat, sugarcane, oil seeds, tea, coffee, jute, cotton, millet, pulses, etc. Their division depends on the temperature, moisture, and water requirements per season. We have facilitated the complete details pertaining to the Rabi crops and Kharif crops.

It is commonly seen that questions based on Rabi crops and Kharif crops are asked in the UPSC-based exams. Answering these questions can be confusing. This article will help candidates to master the topic of rabi crops and Kharif crops, understand the basic comparison between them, and will help answer these questions correctly.

Overview of Rabi Crops and Karif Crops

In India, there are three major types of crops: Zaid, Rabi crops, and Kharif Crops. The Rabi crops and Kharif crops are the major sources of subsistence in India. The Rabi crops are spring crops, whereas the Kharif crops are monsoon crops.

What are Crops?

Crops are special kinds of plants or their products. The crops are primarily produced and harvested for subsistence or commercial trading purposes. In India, farming came into existence around 9000 BC, where wheat, barley, and jujube were primarily cultivated.

Rabi and Kharif Crops UPSC PDF

Crops can be of the following categories:

  • Food crops
  • Feed crops,
  • Fibre crops,
  • Oil crops,
  • Ornamental crops, and
  • Industrial crops.

Important Rabi and Kharif Crops Name

The above-mentioned 6 different types of crops can further be classified into three major categories as per the season they are cultivated and harvested in. The season-based category of crops is Zaid, Rabi, and Kharif crops. The table provided below consists of the important Rabi and Kharif crop names sown in India in their respective seasons:

Kharif Crops Name Rabi Crops Name
Jowar Onion
Castor Cumin
Guar (F) Lucerne
Arhar Oat
Soyabean Tomato
Hy Cotton Wheat
Chilly Fenugreek
Nagali Coriander
Sesamum Mustard
Maize Fennel
Urid Potato
Cotton Gram
Paddy Maize
Bajra Isabgol

What is Kharif Crop?

Kharif crop is a monsoon crop cultivated in the Indian subcontinent during the monsoon season. The word is taken from the Arabic language, where Kharif means autumn. The significance of this word is that a crop is sown in monsoon and reaped close to Autumn. The sowing of Kharif started with the first rain of the monsoon.

About Kharif Crops

Kharif crops require a heavy amount of water to cultivate, which is why they are sown in the rainy season with abundant rainfall. A few of the Kharif crops are Peaches, Brinjal, and Cotton. Sarda, Sponge gourd, Guar, etc.

Kharif Season Months or Kharif Crops Season

Kharif crop is sown in the monsoon season. The sowing of the Kharif crop begins with rainfall in Late May or the start of June. The Kharif season ends with the harvesting of the crops from October–November.

  • The major factor in this crop is the monsoon, as the water requirement for the Kharif crop is high, which is fulfilled by rain precipitation.
  • In India, Monsoon enters around May, reaching Mumbai around June and Delhi at the end of June.
  • The ending of the monsoon may extend to the latest January. The good monsoon season brings a boom in the Indian economy as around 600 million people participate in agriculture and 20% of the national GDP depends on agriculture.

Kharif Crops Examples

In India, there are vast types of Kharif crops. Types of Kharif crops are not the same throughout the country. Depending on the location, weather conditions, natural vegetation, and soil conditions, different Kharif crops are produced all over India. These crops heavily depend on the amount of rain.

Kharif Crops Chart

Check out more than 20 examples of Kharif crops provided here. The list of Kharif crops is given below for various categories of crops produced in various parts of India.

Fruits Vegetables Seed Plants Cereals
Almonds Plums Bitter gourd (karela) Arhar (tur) Jowar
Apples Pears Bottle gourd Black gram (urad) Maize (corn)
Jaman Phalsa Turmeric Soybean Millet
Bananas Papaya Chili Cowpea Rice (paddy and deepwater rice)
Apricots Peaches Brinjal Cotton
Coconut Sarda Sponge gourd Guar
Cantaloupe Sugarcane Green bean Green gram (moong)
Chikoo Walnut Ladies’ fingers Groundnut
Guava Watermelon Tinda Sesame (til)
Figs Luffa Tomato Mung bean
Mango Orange Fennel (Saunf)
Litchi Muskmelon Urad bean
Dates Pomegranate Moth bean
Red gram (Pigeon pea)

What is Rabi Crop?

The second type of crop is the Rabi crop. This is known as the winter crop because it is sown this season. Rabi crop is harvested in the spring season. The Rabi name is also driven from the Arabic language; Rabi means spring. The significance of this is that it is harvested in that season.

About Rabi Crops

Rabi crops are planted after the monsoon season, generally in November. The water requirements for these crops are less than for the Kharif crops. These crops are less affected by rain precipitation.

Rabi Crop Season

Rabi crop grows in cold weather with adequate water. The soil moisture during the Rabi crop sowing is good since it is done just after the monsoon season. The crop is harvested during the month of April.

  • These crops require warm weather to grow, which is why they are fully grown and harvested in April.
  • Rabi crop season is known for the crops such as wheat, barley, peas, etc.
  • Mustard is another Rabi crop. This crop is widely used in Indian households for cooking purposes. Mustard requires a dry and cool climate to grow.

Rabi Crops Examples

India is known for its variety of Rabi crops. As in India, varieties of Kharif crops are seen similarly. Various Rabi crops exist in India.

Cereals Legumes / lentils (dal) Fruits Seed plants Vegetables
barley chickpea guava grape fruit alfalfa bean garlic (lehsun)
Wheat pigeon pea date mandarin orange mustard capsicum[6] potato
mustard masoor banana kinnow fenugreek broccoli pea
gram kulthi orange lemon coriander beetroot lady finger
oat mung bean ber lime linseed cabbage onion
rapeseed lobias grape mulberries cumin brinjal (baingan) lettuce
Linseed toria mangoes isabgol carrot (gajar) radish (mooli)
Urad bean


Bengal gram chickpea sweet potato
sunflower cauliflowers (gobhi) spinach (palak)
red gram fenugreek (methi) tomato
black pepper turnip (shalgum)

Rabi and Kharif Difference

Aspirants can expect a few questions based on the Rabi and Kharif crop in the upcoming exams. Here are the Rabi and Kharif crops UPSC chart focusing on differences prepared to help candidates quickly review the concepts for the exam.

Particulars Kharif Crops Rabi Crops
Weather Conditions Moist conditions Dry conditions
Season May – November October – April
Sowing Time Seeds are sown at the beginning of the monsoon season. Seeds are sown at the beginning of the winter
Major Producing States Kerala, Punjab, Haryana, and Tamil Nadu Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, MP, Punjab, Odisha, and Rajasthan.
Harvesting Time End of the monsoon. End of the winter around April.
Examples are Jowar, Maize, Cotton, Bajra, Sugarcane, and Groundnut. Linseed, Barley, Wheat, Cereals, and Mustard

Rabi And Kharif Crops For UPSC Exam

The aspirants must have an in-depth knowledge of Rabi crops and Kharif crops to perform exceptionally well in the exam. The aspirants can download the UPSC PDF for the exam and move ahead on the path of comprehensive preparation.

Candidates must be well versed in the difference between rabi and Kharif crops. This topic frames out to be an essential segment of the syllabus. It is highly recommended to the candidates practice the previous year’s papers to get ahead on the path of preparation.

UPSC Notes
Agro-Climatic Zones of India Wetlands in India
Grassland Ecosystem Landforms
Land Revenue System Local Winds
Types of Winds Wind Energy in India
Our Apps Playstore
SSC and Bank
Other Exams
GradeStack Learning Pvt. Ltd.Windsor IT Park, Tower - A, 2nd Floor, Sector 125, Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201303
Home Practice Test Series Premium