Agro-Climatic Zones of India – List, Aim, Agro-Ecological Zones

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

The agro-climatic zones of India are the land units that are climatically suited for a specific compass of crops and cultivars and may be expressed properly or exactly in terms of major climate and growing seasons, this is the definition as prescribed by the Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO]. For elaborate agricultural planning and establishing future plans, the Planning Commission of India established fifteen large Agro Climatic zones of India, in accordance with the physiography, geological structure, soils, climate, growth of irrigation and mineral resources, and farming patterns. The agro-climatic zones of India also frame out to be an essential segment of the UPSC syllabus.

The Agro-Climatic Zones of India are aimed at ensuring sufficient economic and agricultural growth. Agriculture, as well as related activities such as poultry, livestock farming, crop diversification, and rotation, must be given enough emphasis. Similarly, to supplement farmer income and socioeconomic development, area-specific Agri clusters and Agro-based companies must be developed. The study of agro-climatic zones of India will enable the researchers in examining the ways to uplift and augment agricultural productivity.

What Are Agro Climatic Zones of India?

The climate plays an instrumental and essential role in influencing agricultural patterns. Henceforth, it witnesses alteration region-wise. The agro-climatic zones of India have been stratified in accordance with the climatic factors by the National Planning Commission. Throughout the country, there are almost 15 climatic zones.

  • The knowledge of the agro-climatic zones of India enables the researchers to bring forth methods to enhance and augment agricultural productivity. This will also assist in establishing sustainable development goals pertaining to agriculture.
  • Climate change has severely and drastically impacted the agricultural growth in the country.
  • The weather pattern alterations and other factors, and the drastic consequences of climate change affect the variations in the crop structure.
  • The focus on surging productivity is resulting in the depletion of the variedness in the crops in accordance with the agro-climatic zones of India.

List of Agro-Climatic Zones of India

There are 15 Agro-Climatic Zones in India. A few of them are explained below in detail. Check here the list of the agro-climatic zones of India and other specifications-

Western Himalayas

Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand make up this region. Rice, maize, wheat, barley, and vegetables are farmed in the pastures on steep slopes.

Lower Gangetic Plains

This region encompasses eastern Bihar, West Bengal, and Assam’s Brahmaputra Valley. Rice and jute crops thrive under these conditions. Other major crops include maize, legumes, and potatoes. Temperate fruits such as apples, peaches, pears, almonds, and walnuts are also grown in the area.

Eastern Plateau Hills

The Chotanagpur plateau, the Rajmahal Hills, and the Chhattisgarh lowlands are all part of this region. Rice, oilseeds, ragi, tur, groundnut, soybean, urad, potato, gram, castor, groundnut, millets, and maize are grown here.

Eastern Himalayan Region

Comprises Arunachal Pradesh, Assam’s hills, Tibet, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, and Tripura. Rice, maize, potato, and tea are the main crops, as are pineapple, litchi, orange, and lime plantations.

Trans-Ganga Plains Region

Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi, and Rajasthan’s Ganganagar district are part of this region. The major crops are wheat, sugar, cotton, rice, chickpea, maize, millets, pulses, and oilseeds.

Middle Gangetic Plain Region

Comprises parts of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Rice, wheat, millets, maize, gram, barley, peas, mustard, and potato are the major crops.

Upper Gangetic Plains Region

Includes sections of Uttar Pradesh’s central and western regions, as well as Uttarakhand’s Hardwar and Udham Nagar districts.

The major crops are wheat, millet, sugarcane, rice, maize, chickpea, barley, oilseeds, pulses, and cotton.

Central Plateau and Hills Area

Comprises Bundelkhand, Baghelkhand, Bhander Plateau, Malwa Plateau, as well as Vindhyachal Hills. Millets, grain, gram, oilseeds, cotton, and sunflower are the main crops.

Western Plateau & Hills Area

Includes the southern half of the Malwa plateau and the Deccan plateau. Wheat, grams, millets, cotton, pulse, groundnut, oilseeds, sugarcane, wheat, maize, oranges, grapes, and bananas are the most important crops.

Southern Plateau and Hills Area

Covering Adilabad District in the north till Madurai District in the south, the region includes parts of southern Maharashtra and major parts of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu uplands. Millets, oilseeds, pulses, black tea, coffee, cardamom, and spices are among the major crops.

Eastern Coastal Plains & Hills Area

Includes Coromandal and Northern Circar beaches of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha. Rice, jute, cigarettes, sugarcane, maize, millets, and peanuts, are the major crops.

Western Coastal Plains and Ghats

Comprises Malabar and Konkan coastal plains, as well as the Sahyadris. Rice, cocoa, oilseeds, sugarcane, millets, lentils, and cotton are the main crops.

Gujarat Plains and Hills Area

Includes Kathiawar’s hills and plains, as well as the lush Mahi and Sabarmati River valleys. Groundnut, cotton, millet, rice, oilseeds, wheat, and tobacco are the main crops.

Western Plain and Hill Region

Include the area west of Aravalli in the Western Dry Region (Rajasthan). Bajra, jowar, moth, wheat, and gram are the main crops.

Island Region

Comprises the Andaman-Nicobar and Lakshadweep Islands. The main crops are rice, wheat, millets, pulses, turmeric, and cassava.

Aim of Agro Climatic Zones

The agro-climatic zones of India serve numerous purposes such as increasing the number of jobs in rural areas. The agro-climatic zones will also assist in increasing productivity if it is utilized effectively. It leads to a rise in the income earned from farming activities. This will also be a major contributor to trimming off the inequalities persisting in the regions. Another foremost objective of the agro climate zones is to upgrade and uplift the agricultural practices and sectors in India.

What are Agro-Ecological Zones?

“Agro-ecology” term traces its meaning as ecology being the study of the relationship of the abiotic, biotic, and other factors of the climate. Agro refers to agriculture. The agroecological areas mean the areas where farming is balanced with nature and the climate. The methodology of the agroecological zones has been developed by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations in association with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.

The country has been classified into 20 agroecological zones. These zones can be referred to as the segments of the land that favour similar patterns and types of agriculture. It takes into account the length of the growing period of the crops and other climatic factors. The regions where agroecological zones can be observed in India are the Chhotanagpur Plateau of Bihar, some segments of Bengal, and Eastern parts of Orissa.

Agro Climatic Zone For UPSC Exam

The candidates who aspire to take up the position of an IAS Officer, must be in possession of extensive cognizance of the crucial topics. Attempting the previous year papers will enable the candidates in preparing comprehensively for the exam.

Agro Climatic Zones Of India UPSC PDF

The questions pertaining to this topic have been frequently asked in the exam to assess the candidates on the basis of their knowledge of this topic. The agro-climatic zones of India, their impact, and their role in increasing agricultural productivity weave out an essential segment of the UPSC syllabus.

UPSC Notes
Types of Crops in India Kharif and Rabi Crops
Agricultural Product Market Committee Soil Health Card Scheme
Wetlands in India Grassland Ecosystem
Landforms Land Revenue System
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