How Many Types of Montane Forests are There?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 9th, 2023

Montane forests are classified into three types namely temperate forests, Indian alpine forests, and wet temperate forests. Montane habitats can be found on the sides of mountains. Because temperatures drop as elevation rises and the ecosystem stratifies, the alpine climate has a significant impact on the environment in these areas.

Types of Montane Forests

To understand this better, candidates should go through the information mentioned below.

  • Wet Temperate Forests (1000 – 2000 m): These forests can be found in moist temperate forests and higher mountain regions of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Eastern Himalayas (1000-2000 meters). The average annual temperature ranges between 11 and 14 degrees Celsius, with average annual rainfall between 150 and 300 centimeters.
  • Temperate forests (1500–3000 m): Temperate forests occupy the southern Himalayan slopes and contain pine, deodar, fir, spruce, and cedar. Annual precipitation ranges from 150 to 250 cm.
  • Indian Alpine Forest (above 3600 m): Alpine forests are usually made up of birch, pine, juniper, and fir. At higher elevations, lichens and mosses are found in the local vegetation.

Facts About Montane Forests

This stratification determines the plant community, biodiversity, metabolic processes, and ecosystem dynamics of montane habitats.

  • Montane ecosystems provide environmental services such as carbon storage and water supply.
  • At intermediate elevations, dense montane forests are common due to mild temperatures and abundant rainfall.
  • Higher elevations have harsher climates with lower temperatures and stronger winds, preventing trees from growing and causing the plant community to shift to alpine tundra, montane grasslands, and shrublands.
  • Because of the unique climatic conditions, the density of endemic species is higher in highland environments.


How Many Types of Montane Forests are There?

India has three types of montane forests such as wet temperate forests, temperate forests, and Indian Alpine forests. Montane forests can be found in the mountains at elevations ranging from 1000 to 2000 meters.

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