Framing of Indian Constitution: Evolution, Steps Involved and Features

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

The process of framing of Indian constitution was initiated by M.N.Roy by introducing the thought of creating a Constituent Assembly in 1934. Roy was a trailblazer of the Indian communist movement. He also supported radical democratism. It was in 1935 that the Indian National Congress formally requested the formation of the Constituent Assembly to initiate the process of framing the Indian constitution.

Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru started the official process of framing of Indian constitution. He announced on behalf of the Indian National Congress in 1938 that the Indian constitution should be created, excluding any kind of foreign influence. Let us learn more about the framing and evolution of Indian Constitution.

Framing of Indian Constitution

Pt. Nehru, while announcing his desire to frame the Indian Constitution, also mentioned the creation of a Constituent Assembly, which would be elected based on the ‘adult franchise’. The constituent Assembly was established under the Cabinet Mission Plan (1946). The Assembly had to further form 13 committees to accomplish the task of framing of Indian constitution.

It was only based on the recommendations of the committees that the draft of the constitution was prepared. This draft was prepared by a Drafting Committee of 7 members, appointed on 29th August 1947. The chairman of the Drafting Committee was Dr B.R. Ambedkar. Other committee members were K.M. Munshi, B.L. Mitter, Mohammad Saadulla, N. Gopalaswami, Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar, and D.P. Khaitan.

Evolution of Indian Constitution

The Indian constitution is the lengthiest written constitution in the world, inspired by various countries. Due to the drafting committee’s arduous efforts, the framing of Indian constitution could be done successfully. The ruling British government approved the demand for a constitution in a formal ‘August offer’ in 1940. The steps of the evolution of Indian Constitution have been illustrated herein-

  • The Constituent Assembly comprised 389 members who were the representatives of all the provinces and states.
  • The first meeting of the Assembly was held on 9th December 1946.
  • Dr Sachhidannand Sinha, the oldest member, was selected as the Provisional President of the Constituent Assembly.
  • On 11th December 1946, Dr Rajendra Prasad was appointed as the permanent Chairman of the Assembly.
  • The strength of the Constituent Assembly was also reduced to 299 from 389 members originally, also owing to the removal of the members of the Muslim league following the country’s partition.
  • After the 13 Committees were formed, the Drafting Committee presented the draft under Dr B.R. Ambedkar.
  • The draft constitution was approved and further published in 1948 (January).
  • The framing of Indian constitution was a long and tedious process that involved several discussions, meetings, and deliberations.
  • The draft was the final result of the components picked from various sources of Indian constitution from other countries, which made it the lengthiest & best-suited at the same time.
  • The evolution of Indian Constitution had to cover a long way to be the lengthiest written constitution in the world.

Constituent Assembly Debates

Framing of Indian Constitution and its Features

The process of framing of Indian constitution finally culminated in 1949 when the Constituent Assembly successfully adopted it. It is said that while most of the draft constitution became effective on 26th January 1950, certain provisions such as Citizenship, Elections, Provisional Parliament, and temporary and transitional provisions had already come into effect from 26th November 1949.

Complete care was taken during the process of framing of Indian constitution regards to while borrowing the special features of the constitution that necessary modifications are made to them.

Some of the features of the constitution that were borrowed from various sources are as follows:

Comparison of the Indian constitution With Other Countries.

Evolution of Indian Constitution UPSC

The framing of Indian constitution is an extremely significant topic for UPSC aspirants. To have a stronghold of the subject, you must refer to Polity Books for UPSC and the NCERT Books. It is advisable to note all the important points and events concerning the evolution of Indian Constitution which are relevant for the upcoming UPSC Exam.

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