Difference Between Democracy and Republic – Republic vs Democracy

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

The difference between Democracy and Republic is how much power the law gives to the government, which impacts minority rights. Both types of governance often employ a representational system whereby voters choose politicians to represent their interests and create the government.

Difference Between Democracy and Republic PDF

Republic vs Democracy difference is that Democracy is a system of governance where the country’s people have the authority and power to analyze the laws needed to govern the country, whereas a republic is a system in which people choose their representatives. The people of the area elect a president. Here, let us check the difference between Democracy and Republic.

Difference Between Democracy and Republic

Some countries in the world follow both democratic and Republic forms of government. These countries are called Democratic Republics. It refers to a type of government with a hybrid system of government.

When implemented well, either would work for the smooth functioning of a country. Given below is a tabular representation of the difference between Democracy and Republic.

Republic vs Democracy

Difference Between Democracy and Republic
Democracy Republic
There are three types of Democracy:

Representative Democracy

Direct Democracy

Constitutional Democracy

There are five types of Republic:

Constitutional Republic

Theocratic Republic

Presidential Republic

Parliamentary Republic

Federal Republic

People have full authority in a democratic form of system. Individual citizens have the authority in a Republic form of system.
The majority of people decide the laws made by the government. The elected representatives decide the laws made by the government.
There can be more than one type of democratic government in a country. Republic of more than one form in a country may be available.
There are no restrictions or constraints on the government in a democratic form. There are some limits and restrictions in a Republic form of government.
It is based on the will of the people. In a Republic form of government, the constitution is given the most value.
Examples of Democracy are India, Nigeria, and the USA Examples of Republics include the Federal Republic of Nigeria, the Argentine Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, etc.
Democracy of Greece Athenian is one of the early forms of Democracy. The Republic of the Romans is an early example of a Republic

Democracy and Republic

The primary difference between Democracy and Republic is the degree to which each system gives citizens control over the legal system, regardless of the type of government in place. In both Republic and Democracy, the political system is citizen-centric, and elected leaders represent the people to work in their interest.

Certain rights in a republic are safeguarded by a constitution or charter of rights, which states that no government can violate them, no matter how elected.

What is Democracy?

The term ‘Democracy’ derives from the Greek term demos. It means people and power. Hence, Democracy is a government in which people have the power to choose the ruling government. According to Abraham Lincoln, Democracy is a Government of the people, by the people, for the people.

  • The constitution in democracies places restrictions on the executive branch’s authority.
  • To safeguard the people’s rights and liberties, powers and duties are separated.
  • The citizens who are qualified to vote to participate equally in the legislative process in pure democracies.
  • In other words, the minority has little to no influence in a pure democracy, whereas the majority holds all the power.

What is Republic?

The term ‘Republic’ derives from the Latin term Res Publica. It means “matter of the public.” A Republic is a state in which people choose their representatives. The people of the area elect a president.

  • The republic is linked not just to democracies but also to oligarchies, monarchies, and aristocracies, where the heads of state are chosen randomly from the population.
  • While an executive is appointed to carry out the laws passed by the representatives, representatives are elected to make legislation.

Democratic Republic of India

Voting for representatives is done by citizens from all around India, making it a well-known democracy. Elections in India are held every five years, where all adults are eligible to vote under the universal adult franchise, regardless of gender, caste, religion, or social standing.

  • By exercising their right to vote, citizens choose suitable representatives, giving them the authority to establish new governments.
  • The power to govern our nation does not belong to a select few.
  • Anyone can apply for any position in the government, regardless of gender, caste, or religion.
  • Even the President of India or Prime Minister belongs to the public.
  • India is therefore known as the Democratic Republic.


Key Difference Between Democracy and Republic

The key Difference Between Democracy and Republic is that in a pure democracy, the voting majority directly makes the laws, with the rights of the minority receiving little or no protection. In contrast, a republic’s constitution particularly safeguards the rights of the minority against the majority’s will, and laws are made by representatives chosen by the people in accordance with that constitution.

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