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Comparison of Indian Constitution with other Countries – Indian Constitutional Scheme

By Balaji

Updated on: February 17th, 2023

Comparison of Indian Constitution with other countries allows us to have a better understanding of the law of the land. As many parts of the Indian constitution are borrowed from other countries, a comparison of the constitution will help acquire a better picture of it.

The comparison of Indian Constitution with other countries lay out striking differences.The Indian constitutional scheme lays down a set of guidelines & fundamental principles to be followed while governing the country. The Indian constitution gives a detailed account of the duties and responsibilities of the citizens as well as the government. It also gives out information about the fundamental rights of the Indian people. The constitution of India is the longest and has been inspired by the constitutions of various countries. Check out the complete details of the comparison of Indian constitution with other countries.

Table of content

(more)
  • 1. Comparison of Indian Constitution with Other Countries (more)
  • 2. Comparison of Indian Constitution with the US Constitution (more)
  • 3. Comparison of Indian Constitution with the British Constitution (more)
  • 4. Comparison of Indian Constitution with the French Constitution (more)
  • 5. Comparison Between Indian Constitution and German Constitution (more)
  • 6. Comparison of the Indian Constitutional Scheme with Japan (more)
  • 7. Comparing Constitution – Fundamental Duties, Rights & Directive Principles (more)
  • 8. Indian Constitutional Scheme (more)
  • 9. Comparison of Indian Constitution with Other Countries UPSC (more)

Comparison of Indian Constitution with Other Countries

Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme makes us aware that it is one of the longest among others. The presence of a detailed and written constitution of India ensures that the country is in good hands, holds the government accountable for its actions by holding it against the law, guides the Indian administration in the right direction, makes people realize their duties as responsible citizens as well as makes them aware of their rights.

By making a comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries, we may realize that people responsible for framing the constitution tried to take the best & useful aspects from almost every constitution of the world to make it inclusive of all necessary principles and modified them according to the nation’s requirements. Let us look into the various features of the constitutions around the world and make a fair comparison of Indian constitution with other countries based on some important points.

Comparison of Indian Constitution with the US Constitution

When comparing Indian constitutional scheme with other countries such as the USA, the following points can be noted.

  • Indian constitution is a written document that mentions all the rules and guidelines to be followed while governing a nation and guides the government on how to manage the administration of a huge country like India. On the other hand, the American constitution is the shortest & the first ever written constitution that existed.
  • The Indian constitution is a more flexible one and certain provisions, if required, can easily be altered by a simple law or majority. Whereas the American constitution is considered the most rigid one in the world which can only be altered by a special process.
  • The constitution of India is federal in nature along with a unitary bias depending on various circumstances. On the contrary, the American constitution is federal in nature. Every state there possesses its own constitution, supreme court, governor & elected legislature.
  • The constitution of India provides for a Parliamentary govt. both at the center and state. America represents a Presidential form of government where the President is directly chosen by the people.
  • The constitution of India makes the President the head of the state. Though the Prime Minister has the real powers to function, all the executive actions are taken in the name of the President. Whereas the President of the United States of America holds executive power. He is the head of state as well as the head of the government. He is also the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed forces.
  • The Indian constitution provides for single citizenship, irrespective of having a federal government. The American constitution permits Dual citizenship.

Comparison of Indian Constitution with the British Constitution

While making a comparison of Indian constitution with other countries, there are many features that are found to be similar. Let us see how much the Indian constitution differs from the British constitution.

  • The constitution of India is the lengthiest written constitution whereas the British constitution is an ‘unwritten document’ based on common law, charters, conventions, and political traditions.
  • The Indian constitution is more flexible than rigid and the British constitution is by far the most flexible as any kind of amendment can easily be done through a simple majority in the parliament.
  • The Indian constitution supports a Federal kind of government whereas the British constitution is unitary.
  • The constitution of India provides for a Parliamentary govt. both at the center and state and the British constitution also represents a Parliamentary form of government.
  • The Indian constitution provides for single citizenship, whereas Britain is flexible and does not require a person to leave out their original citizenship status.

Comparison of Indian Constitution with the French Constitution

There are many striking features of the French constitution that can be compared with the Indian constitution as follows.

  • India is a written constitution whereas the French constitution is based on the principle of Executive supremacy and is the only Democratic constitution that way.
  • The constitution of India is flexible and changes can be easily done at the time of need. On the contrary, the constitution of France has a rigid constitution that requires a resolution to be passed by a 60% majority in two houses of Parliament.
  • The constitution of France gives it a unitary form of government as opposed to India’s Federal government.
  • India has a Parliamentary form of government whereas the constitution of France is a mixed bag having features of both Parliamentary & Presidential forms of government. It is known as a semi- Presidential type of government.
  • The Indian constitution does not allow the President to have an upper hand in the country’s management whereas the President of France has complete power here and the Prime Minister works as his assistant.
  • France allows dual citizenship in comparison to India which provides for single citizenship.

Comparison Between Indian Constitution and German Constitution

Take a look at the comparison of India’s constitutional scheme with that of other countries such as Germany. Germany possesses striking similarities with the Indian constitution.

  • India is flexible when it comes to the amendments in the constitution. Germany is known to have a rigid constitution.
  • The German constitution allows it to be a federal state just like India.
  • In Germany, the President is the constitutional head of the government. The PM possesses more powers as is the case with India.
  • Germany allows Dual citizenship as opposed to India’s single citizenship rule.

Comparison of the Indian Constitutional Scheme with Japan

Japan is another Asian country like India that functions on a strong administrative system. Let us see the comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of Japan.

  • Japan has a rigid constitution. Its two houses of Parliament are called Diet. India comparatively has a flexible constitution with unitary bias under certain circumstances.
  • Japan has a parliamentary form of government with some features of the British form of parliament like having a constitutional monarchy. India too possesses a Parliamentary government.

Comparing Constitution – Fundamental Duties, Rights & Directive Principles

All three components are an important part of any constitution in the world. Let us see how much importance is given to each of them in the world’s constitutions.

Fundamental Rights

Fundamental Duties

Directive Principles

India- Indian constitution mentions the Fundamental Rights in Part III and from Article 12 to Article 35.

These are taken from the American Bill of Rights.

There are certain restrictions in the Indian constitution.

These represent the civic duties of a responsible citizen.

India – The Fundamental Duties in the Indian constitution have been inspired by that of the USSR.

No other country possesses these Fundamental Duties in their constitution.

The Directive Principles refer to the guidelines or ideals on an economic, social, and political level for a democracy.

The Indian constitution has taken its Directive Principles from the Irish constitution.

Japan – The Japanese constitution also makes place for Fundamental Rights.

USA – The Fundamental Rights in America are absolute without any restriction.

Indian Constitutional Scheme

The constitution of India was adopted on 26th November 1949 and came into force on 26th January 1950. It contains a Preamble, around 465 articles, and 12 schedules in all. It also contains sources from the Government of India Act 1935. Based on the comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries, let us see what are the major features of the Indian constitution.

  • Lengthiest Constitution
  • Combination of flexibility and rigidity
  • Federal form of government with unitary bias
  • Fundamental Rights (inspired by the American Bill of Rights)
  • Single citizenship (despite being a Federal government)

Comparison of Indian Constitution with Other Countries UPSC

Indian Polity is an important subject with respect to the UPSC exam and the topic of Indian constitution forms an inseparable part of it. Therefore having thorough knowledge and details about the comparison of the Indian Constitutional scheme with that of other countries is necessary. It is an important topic for both UPSC Prelims and Mains exams.

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