Rio Earth Summit 1992 – Agenda 21, Rio Declaration, UNCED

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

Earth Summit, also called Rio Summit or Rio conference, was the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held from 3 to 14 June 1992. The goal of the Rio Summit was to define a comprehensive agenda and a fresh strategy for global action on environment and development challenges in the twenty-first century.

The Earth Summit 1992 concluded that sustainable development was an achievable global goal while focusing on economic, social and environmental concerns. Earth Summit 1992, a convention where 179 national government leaders met in Rio de Janeiro. This event also served as the official launch event for UNCED. One of the most notable outcomes of the Rio summit was Agenda 21.

What is Rio Earth Summit?

The Earth summit took palace on the 20th anniversary of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm, Sweden which was held in 1972. The summit in 1972 was the first-ever conference on the environment at such a level that the adoption of the Stockholm Declaration and Plan of Action occurred.

Rio Summit is Associated with

The Rio summit is associated with the Convention on Biological Diversity. Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit in 1992 was based on the basic idea of rethinking the current state of mother Earth and adopting economic ways to stop pollution. In this summit, a total of 172 nations took part, along with 2400 representatives of the NGOs. This Earth summit indicated the importance of the environment and attitude towards the environment.

Rio De Janeiro Earth Summit 1992 Outcomes

This Rio summit or Earth summit 1992 impacted nations all across the globe. Various international actions were taken based on the outcomes, reports, or blueprints generated at this summit. It is important to know that even the Kyoto Protocol and Earth Summit 2002 followed the blueprint of the Rio Earth Summit 1992.

Rio Earth Summit PDF

The Earth summit of Rio de Janeiro resulted in the following outcomes:

  • Agenda 21
  • Rio Declaration on Environment and Development
  • Forest Principles

Features of Rio De Janeiro Earth Summit

As mentioned above, the Earth Summit was held in the year 1992 in the Brazillian city of Rio de Janeiro. Around 178 countries participated in the conference which included the heads of state of 118 governments. With this, the Earth Summit gave rise to the Rio Declaration which committed to the principles of sustainable development. Here are some important features of the Rio De Janeiro Earth Summit:

  • Agenda 21 was an action plan that was designed to introduce sustainable development worldwide over the forthcoming years.
  • 27 principles were included in the Rio Declaration, which was believed to be a guide action on economic development and environmental development.
  • The Forest principles emphasized the right of states to utilise their resources in alignment with the principles of sustainable forest management.
  • The Earth Summit also introduced various measures that were designed to reduce the global impact of climate change and the threat of global warming.

Rio Summit Agenda 21

The second most important outcome of the Rio summit 1992 was Agenda 21. It is a plan comprehensively created for sustainable development. This agenda, via social and economic methods, addresses environmental problems. The implementation of the Agenda 21 is assigned to the UN Commission on Sustainable Development.

Agenda 21′ of Rio Summit 1992 is Related to

The ‘agenda 21’ of the Rio summit 1992 is related to the environment and sustainable development. The four categories covered in the Agenda 21 proposed in the Rio summit are:

  • Social and Economic Dimensions
  • Strengthening the Role of Major Groups
  • Means of Implementation
  • Resources for Development Conservation and Management

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development

The rights and obligations of states in the fields of environmental protection and sustainable development are outlined in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, a set of guiding principles. This was an important document and guideline released by the UN for future generations.

According to the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, countries can utilize natural resources inside their borders as long as it doesn’t harm other countries’ environments. It also requests that local, state, and federal governments create policies to safeguard the natural world and its resources for coming generations.

Rio Summit Forest Principles

The other important outcome of the Rio summit is the forest principle. It is also called Rio Forest principles. Forest principles laid out by the UN are a non-binding legal framework based on forestry growth and conservation. This document was a compromised result after the discussion with the developed nations.

Environmental Treaties of Rio Summit

The Rio summit is also known for the successful production of two following treaties highly praised by various nations. Two environmental treaties of the Rio Summit are-

Convention on Biological Diversity

The Rio summit 1992 was impactful in various aspects, and the impact on Biodiversity is one of them. The Convention on Biological Diversity was directed toward the preservation of biodiversity. For this impactful treaty, 180 nations signed the convention.

The goals of the convention on Biological diversity regarding the biological reserves were:

  • Biodiversity conservation
  • Resources’ sustainable use
  • Resources’ fair and equitable sharing.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

This international treaty was also proposed at the Earth summit 2022. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is sometimes also called the UNFCCC. It was an important treaty proposed to focus on the issue of greenhouse gas emissions. UNFCCC was an agreement that was officially accepted by more than 190 nations.

Importance of Rio De Janeiro Earth Summit

The Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit proved to be a pivotal moment in international cooperation on environmental issues. This is because the Summit laid the foundation for many subsequent international agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement on climate change. But that’s not all. The Summit also highlighted the need for global action to address challenges like poverty, environmental degradation, and social inequality, which are interconnected.

Furthermore, the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit contributed to the global efforts that were made in the direction of sustainable development and environmental protection. Hence, the adoption of comprehensive plans like Agenda 21 was made possible.

Rio Earth Summit 1992 Summary

Rio summit did occur at a big level with great after-effects, but most of the objectives were left unachieved. The ideas and intentions with which various agendas and treaties were launched were not fully converted, and left underachieved.

The main focus of the Rio summit was on temperature control, but the temperature has increased drastically over the past few decades. At Rio Summit in 1992, it was believed that sustainable development could be achieved irrespective of where anyone is. The economic, social, and environmental considerations shall be balanced to reach a sustainable environment.

Earth Summit Overview
Rio Summit is also known as Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, Rio Conference, and Rio Summit.
Earth Summit 1992 was held in which city Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Earth Summit of Rio de Janeiro 1992 resulted in Agenda 21,

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and

Forest Principles.

The ‘Agenda 21’ of Rio Summit 1992 is related to Environment and Sustainable Development.

Rio Summit UPSC

The Rio summit is an essential topic for candidates preparing for the exams conducted by the Union Public Service Commission. The other names for Rio summit 1992 are Earth summit, Rio Conference, Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, and Rio Summit. The meeting in Rio de Janeiro brought attention to interdependence and mutual evolution.

Important aspects of the Earth summit were examining industrial processes, preserving the world’s oceans, controlling vehicle emissions, and sustainable development.

UPSC Notes
13th BRICS Summit Summits and Conferences
Round Table Conference Wavell Plan and Shimla Conference
Ramsar Convention Basel Convention
Environmental Conventions Stockholm Convention
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