Why Arabian Sea has More Cyclones?

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 14th, 2023

To analyze the reason behind the increase in cyclone intensity in the Arabian sea, it is important to know what cyclones are. These are the most destructive weather conditions accompanied by strong winds and heavy rainfall. Cyclones are fast inward air circulation about a low-pressure zone. The reason why the Arabian Sea has more cyclones is due to increasing sea surface temperatures and global warming. The temperature has been 1.2-1.4 °C higher than before, which leads to intense cyclones and vigorous convection.

The Reason Behind the Increase in Cyclone Intensity in Arabian Sea

The Arabian Sea used to experience few extreme cyclones than the Bay of Bengal on India’s eastern coast. Cyclones release disastrous storm waves or tsunami-like flooding when they make landfall. The speed of the wind partly impacts them. The more enclosed shape of the Arabian Sea stimulates more evaporation and the formation of clouds.

Reason 1: Rising Sea Surface Temperatures

There has been an increase in cyclone intensity because of global warming, which has resulted in the rising temperature of seawater. Another reason why the Arabian Sea has more cyclones is because of the instantaneous warming of the ocean.

Reason 2: Abundant Energy

The rising temperature enables the Arabian Sea to supply abundant energy for strengthening the cyclones. Cyclone Tauktae evolved as a VSCS in just 2 days, as seawater up to depths of 50 meters has been very warm.

Reason 3: Wind Gradient

The Arabian Sea also nourishes facilitative wind shear or wind gradients for cyclones. For illustration, a higher level easterly wind pushed the crater of Cyclone Ockhi to the Arabian Sea from the Bay of Bengal.

Reason 4: Climatic Phenomenon of El Nino Modoki

The last reason behind the increase in cyclone intensity in the Arabian Sea is the higher occurrence of El Nino Modoki. It is a climatic phenomenon favourable for the formation of cyclones in the Arabian Sea. Conversely, it does not encourage cyclone formation in the Bay of Bengal.

Reason 5: Aerosols Emissions

Since 1930, there has been a six-fold increase in the anthropogenic emissions of aerosols. This has led to the weakening of upper-level easterly winds and lower-level southwesterly winds that determine the movement of precipitation over the Arabian Sea.

Increasing Trend of Cyclones in Arabian Sea

During 1891-2020, the frequency of intensely severe cyclones has risen over the Arabian Sea since 1990, according to the research conducted by the India Meteorological Department over the North Indian Ocean (the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea).

  • The intensity of cyclonic storms did not change over the Bay of Bengal.
  • Approximately 118 deaths were witnessed during Tautkae Cyclones in 2021 from April-June, and it is supposed to be one of the deadliest cyclones taking the highest number of lives.


Why Arabian Sea has More Cyclones?

To analyze the reason behind the increase in cyclone intensity in the Arabian sea, researchers have studied the past and changing trends of cyclones. The reason why the Arabian Sea has more cyclones is due to the increasing water temperature of the sea surface, which supplies plentiful energy for intensifying cyclones.

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