Photovoltaic Cell Converts the Solar Energy into

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: November 9th, 2023

A Photovoltaic Cell converts Solar Energy into electricity. The energy that comes from the Sun is called solar energy. All the energy on earth is created using the Sun’s energy. Solar cells or Photo voltaic cells have been created using modern techniques. Photo means light, and voltaic means electricity. A photo voltaic cell is an optical cell that converts light energy into electric energy.

Photovoltaic Cell Conversion of Solar Energy

The function of solar panels is to generate electricity using the power of sunlight. For this reason, many photo voltaic cells are kept in a solar panel. Photo Voltaic is a unique system that generates electricity using sun rays. They use the sun’s photons to prompt the electrons in the silicon cell. As a result, electricity is generated.

Solar cells are made of particular types of materials. This material is known as semiconductors (e.g., Silicon, Germanium). Substances whose electrical properties are between conductive and non-conductive materials are semiconductors. The atom of this substance has four electrons in its last orbit. Photovoltaic cells are like sandwiches. It is made up of a two-layer semiconductor. In particular, photovoltaic cells are made of silicon. Solar panels are the collection of many photovoltaic cells.

What is the Photoelectric Effect?

Solar power mainly generates electricity by using the principle of the Photoelectric Effect. So, first, we need to know what this Photoelectric Effect is. When light falls on a surface, the process of emitting electrons from the surface is known as Photoelectric Effect.

The energy from the sunlight is sufficient to drive free electrons or holes in that semiconductor. Since electrons and holes are negative and positive, their movement is electric current. Again, the potential difference or voltage is generated due to the charge difference between the solar panel cells. We get direct current (DC) from solar panels. Later, it is converted into Alternative Current (AC) by using an inverter.

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