Study Notes on Food Nutrients for CTET & TET Exam

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

From the EVS section of Paper 1, a total of 30 questions are asked. Out of which 15 – 18 questions are generally asked from the content of EVS and the rest 10 – 12 questions are asked from EVS pedagogy. So for your better preparation, we provide important Food Nutrients study notes hoping that these notes will be beneficial in the exam preparation.

It is essential to prepare for the exam with a proper understanding of subject-wise important topics for any exam. EVS is an important subject for CTET exam and hence, it is important to check all the important subjects and topics of the subject. One of the important topics of the exam is Food Nutrients and thus candidates must prefer studying the topic only with the best Food Nutrients study material mentioned here.



Vitamins are an essential chemical in the body that control normal metabolism and maintains the continuity of the actions. It is essential for the body’s normal growth and development. In 1912 the first vitamin word was proposed by the scientist Funk. Since it is an important amine that is required for proper body function so its name is Vitamine (Vital + Amines).

The scientist named Vitamino Makalm in 1915 found that some of these vitamins are water-soluble and others are fat-soluble. Based on these Vitamins are classified in categories.

Water-soluble vitamins:

  • Vitamin B (Complex)
  • vitamin C

Fat-soluble vitamins:

  • Vitamins A
  • vitamin D
  • Vitamin E
  • Vitamin K

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Water-soluble vitamins:

Vitamin ‘B’ (Vitamin B)

It is a group of vitamins. All of them collectively called B complex. Vitamins in this group are as follows:

Vitamin B1 or Thiamin (Thiamine)

Donth and Jackson in 1926 isolated the vitamin from the upper layer of rice, by this vitamin beriberi disease were treated successfully. It gives the name Thiamin, due to the presence of Sulphur.

Functions of Vitamin B1:

  • This vitamin aids in the metabolism of carbohydrates.
  • Required by the muscles of the digestive system, which keeps the speed of appetite maintained.
  • For the nervous system to function well, its presence is mandatory.


The germ of cereals and pulses, yeast and dried fruit, meat, fish, eggs, milk and milk products in the vitamin is found in reasonable amounts.

Vitamin B6 or Pyridoxine

Stiller synthesized it in 1939 as it adds to the pyridoxine. Co-enzyme in the body, which acts as a vitamin.

The function of Piridoksin’s:

  • It maintains healthy red blood cells and neurodegenerative.
  • The Nicene Tripton amino acids are helpful in converting.

Source of receipt:

Dry yeast, wheat germ, meat, liver, lentils, soybeans, peanuts, eggs, milk, yoghurt, salad leaves, spinach, etc. are the major source.

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Vitamin B12 (Vitamin B12 or Cyanocobalamine)

Vitamin B12 Cobamamide, Anteeprnishiys anaemia factor, Akstrynsik factor is addressed by the names of the Castell. For this man has to rely on food but some living beings depend on intestines. Plants do not have this.


  • It helps in the metabolism of proteins.
  • Helps produce blood cells in the bone marrow.
  • Helpful for Vascular tissue metabolic activity.
  • Source: liver, egg, meat, fish, milk, etc.

Vitamin ‘C’  or Ascorbic Acid

Its name is Ascorbic acid as it removes the scurvy disease.

Functions of Vitamin C:

  • Teeth, bones and maintains healthy blood vessel walls.
  • Helps wound healing.
  • The iron and ferrous ion convert into Ferric, making it possible in the intestine quickly exploited.
  • Deficiency of vitamin C in children leads to chest pain.
  •  Increases in various diseases deterrent.
  • The adrenal gland is important in the functions of synthesis of hormones.
  • This vitamin helps produce is kale in as connecting material in different cells, found in all parts of the body and in the bones.
  • Deficiency of this vitamin leads to hollow bones.


  • Amla, guava and fresh, juicy and sour fruits like -lemon, orange, and orange abound to get it. It is also present in sprouted grains and pulses.
  • There are some small amounts of milk and meat.

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Fat-soluble vitamins:

Vitamin A

This is primarily related to chlorophyll, green vegetation. Kartinoyads yellow pigment found in fruits and vegetables is pre-vitamins. This vitamin is also called retinol. This substance found in plants in carotene. This is called the precursor of vitamin A.


  • It is found in vegetables that are yellow, red, such as tomato, carrot, papaya, sweet potato, mango, peaches, peas and green leafy vegetables (coriander, radish, mint, sugar beet), etc.
  • Are mainly found in fish liver oil. In addition, the egg, milk and butter, and get adequate amounts.

Functions of vitamin A:

  • Vitamin A deficiency is blindness night stay. Slow light in which the person is unable to see anything.
  • It maintains the functionality and performance of epithelium tissue
  • It helps build the mucous secretion in the supportive factors so that the stability of the tissues remain.
  • This tissue tongue, eye, respiratory tract, oral cavity, reproductive and urinary tubes etc. relates to the construction of internal walls.
  • Vitamin epidermis cells maintain smooth and supple.
  • Vitamin A deficiency may lead to soft eyes corneal cortex. The disease is Karatomleshia.

Vitamin K

Vitamin K plays a key role in helping the blood clot, preventing excessive bleeding. Unlike many other vitamins, vitamin K is not typically used as a dietary supplement.

Vitamin K is actually a group of compounds. The most important of these compounds appears to be vitamin K1 and vitamin K2. Vitamin K1 is obtained from leafy greens and some other vegetables. Vitamin K2 is a group of compounds largely obtained from meats, cheeses, and eggs, and synthesized by bacteria.


Bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract naturally make vitamin K. Dietary sources of vitamin K include green leafy vegetables — collards, green leaf lettuce, kale, mustard greens, parsley, romaine lettuce, spinach, Swiss chard and turnip greens — as well as vegetables such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower

Vitamin E

Vitamin E is key for strong immunity and healthy skin and eyes. In recent years, vitamin E supplements have become popular as antioxidants. These are substances that protect cells from damage. However, the risks and benefits of taking vitamin E supplements are still unclear.


Good dietary sources of vitamin E include nuts such as almonds, peanuts and hazelnuts, and vegetable oils such as sunflower, wheat germ, safflower, corn and soybean oils.

Functions of Vitamin E:

  • This vitamin develops fertility
  • Its deficiency causes sterility
  • Its deficiency causes to stop production in men’s sperm
  • The body of the fetus in the womb of the woman dies.
  • Vitamin E Antioxidant substances stop the breakdown of red blood cells and increase their lifespan.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in very few foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. It is also produced endogenously when ultraviolet rays from sunlight strike the skin and trigger vitamin D synthesis. Vitamin D obtained from sun exposure, food, and supplements are biologically inert and must undergo two hydroxylations in the body for activation.


  • Fatty fish, like tuna, mackerel, and salmon.
  • Foods fortified with vitamin D, like some dairy products, orange juice, soy milk, and cereals.
  • Beef Liver.
  • Cheese.
  • Egg yolks

Functions of Vitamin D:

  • Vitamin D controls bowel exploitation of calcium and phosphorus.
  • Due to the deficiency of Vitamin D absorption of calcium and phosphorus is reduced, making these elements in the body released with waste substances.
  • For the proper growth of the body of vitamin D is a very important element.
  • Vitamin D mainly helps to build bones.
  • Vitamin D is essential for the healthy development of teeth. Its deficiency affects the health of the teeth, tooth Dentin and A enamel soon become poor.
  • Vitamin D controls the parathyroid gland function.
  • It maintains the functioning of muscle and nervous system.
  • Protection from pox and whooping cough.

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Study Notes on Food Nutrients for CTET & TET Exam

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