Thinking and Learning Study Material, CDP Study Notes & Material

By BYJU'S Exam Prep

Updated on: September 25th, 2023

Thinking and Learning Study Material is an important topic for the upcoming CTET exam. It is thus important to include this topic in exam preparation. Candidates can check the Thinking and Learning Study Material in brief for preparing for this topic.

बाल विकास CTET और TET परीक्षा का  बहुत महत्वपूर्ण विषय है। इस टॉपिक से 2 से 3 प्रश्न प्रत्तेक टीईटी परीक्षा में पूछे जाते है। हम बाल विकास सोच पर नोट्स दे रहे है जो आगामी शिक्षक परीक्षा में बहुत सहायक होगी।

In this article, we will be providing the best  Thinking and Learning Study notes for the right exam preparation. Keep reading to know more,

About How Children Learn

Although children are born with their inherited qualities and tendencies the environment and mainly adults play a vital role in providing stimulation and support for children’s learning.

A child’s knowledge grows and enhances as he grows, observes things around him, encounters new experiences and based on his understanding and learning, he tries to move ahead.

How do Children think?

Each child develops at a different pace and has an individual outlook on things. Although, most children tend to narrate stories by looking at pictures in their books. These differences may be due to a child’s inherited tendencies, opportunities, or the experiences they are exposed to. The role of language is very important in his learning. It helps children to organize their ideas and facts and gradually develops their problem-solving skills, in turn developing their ideas.

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How and Why do Children ‘Fail’ to ‘Achieve success in school performance’?

A few basic factors are:

1. An inability to complete the task- students must be encouraged to complete their tasks until it is not done no matter how difficult it is.

2. ‘Procrastination’ or poor time management- teachers should encourage good homework and study habits of students from an early age as some students are in a habit of completing every task at the end moment of its completion date or day.

3. Lack of self-esteem- a lack of self-confidence or fear of failure could prevent a student from informing his skills and strengths. Every new skill requires patience before it is mastered.

4. Reliability on others- every child must teach from the very first day he enters school, that he is solely responsible for his studies rather than depending on his fellow mates or others for completing his homework and other tasks.

5. Lack of desire and Motivation- some students are underachievers while some can succeed, in both cases, they are not interested in completing their tasks or showing interest in other activities. Also, due to a lack of motivation, they do not find pleasure in anything.

6. Poor reading comprehension- if a child is poor in basic reading and understanding of the languages used in his studies, we cannot expect him to excel high despite having a sharp brain.

7. Lack of Parental Involvement- A child’s world during a young age, mostly revolves around his parents and so parents play a very important role as a motivating factor. Although some children could do good without their parent’s help in the majority of cases, parents’ involvement has a huge impact on a child’s study.

8. Improper Organizational Skills- mismanagement and poor organizational skills not only decrease and disturbs a child’s pace of learning but also prove to be a hindrance to his learning process further. Hunger, Thirst, lack of sleep, body ailments, or other physical reasons could sometimes also be a reason for his poor understanding.

9. Other factors- some other factors such as low confidence level, peer pressure, overprotection and high expectations of parents, and lack of social and conversational skills also interfere with the achievements of a child at the school level.

Cognition and Emotion

Cognition or Cognitive processes can be natural or artificial. The concept of cognition is closely related to abstract concepts like mind, reasoning, intelligence, etc. It is generally referred to as the mental functions, processes, and state of one’s mind with a particular focus on decision-making and planning.

The term ‘emotion’ means to agitate, excite or move. They could be pleasant or unpleasant. Pleasant emotions are the sources of joy and happiness whereas unpleasant emotions lead to fear, aggression, and anxiety.

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Certain features of Emotions

  • Physiological changes such as facial expressions, gestures, heart beating patterns, blood pressure, etc. are noticed under the influence of emotion.
  • Maturation and Learning play an important role in the expression of emotions.
  • Our reasoning and thinking abilities are affected by emotions.

Factors Influencing Learning

Personal Factors- some of the personal factors which affect learning are:

  • Boredom and Fatigue
  • Age and Maturation
  • Sensation and Perception of things
  • Emotional conditions
  • Needs and Interests
  • Motivational factors
  • Aptitude and Attitude toward learning

Environmental Factors affecting Learning:

  • Relationships with Teachers, Peers, and Parents- a sound relationship at all these levels provide a tension-free environment for a child and facilitates his growth.
  • Surroundings (natural, social, and cultural) – all these conditions affect learning directly. So, they should be favourable and according to a child’s development.
  • Media influence- is considered to be an important source in transforming and gaining information.

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Hence, all these factors are responsible for influencing the learning process. Thorough knowledge of them is very useful for teachers and parents in guiding and understanding their children’s needs.

This article tends to be beneficial for the following exams – REET, UPTET, CTET, Super TET, DSSSB, KVS etc.

Suggested CTET Books for CDP Preparation:

Candidates may refer to some excellent books to prepare for this topic. Check the best CTET books as suggested by the subject experts to study these important topics for the exams. 

Serial No.

Book Name

Author Name


CTET and TETs Child Development and Pedagogy Paper 1 and 2 

Arihant Experts


CTET Child Development and Pedagogy for Paper 1 and Paper 2 

By Pearson (Sandeep Kumar)


Educating Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education

Mangal S.K


Thinking and Learning Study Material, CDP Study Notes & Material

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