Basic Processes of Teaching and Learning
Teaching: is the process of attending to people’s needs, experiences and feelings, and intervening so that they learn particular things, and go beyond the given. Teaching is one of the instruments of education and a special function is to impart understanding and skill. The main function of teaching is to make learning effective and meaningful. The learning process would get completed as a result of teaching. So, teaching and learning are closely related to each other.
Teaching is a process in which one individual teaches or instructs another individual. Teaching is considered the act of imparting instructions to the learners inside and outside the classroom situation. The teaching and learning process is the part and parcel of the education system. The whole education system depends on the aims and objectives of the teaching & learning process.
In the teaching-learning process, the teacher, the learner, and the curriculum are organised in a systematic way to achieve the educational goals and objectives. Learning is an inferred process and differs from a performance which is the observed behaviour/response/action. The principles of learning are applied in child-rearing and school learning.
Teaching should involve:
- Setting out goals with the motivation to make someone learn something by arousing its need to know it.
- Teaching is meaningful if it considers people’s feelings, experiences, and needs.
- Teaching is a two-way process and interactive medium of transferring education.
Learning may be defined as any relatively permanent change in behaviour or behavioural pattern. Various perspectives on learning have emerged - behaviourist, cognitivist and constructivist.
Factors Facilitating Learning:
1. Continuous Reinforcement
2. Partial Reinforcement
4. Preparedness for Learning
Learning Style: refers to how each learner begins to concentrate on, process, and retain new and difficult information.
1. Relational Style
2. Analytical Style
Paradigms of Learning:
The most straightforward kind of learning is called conditioning. Types of conditioning:-
1. Classical Conditioning
2. Instrumental/Operant Conditioning
3. Observational Learning
4. Cognitive Learning
5. Verbal Learning
6. Concept Learning
7. Skill Learning
Transfer Of Learning:
It is also known as the transfer of training or transfer effect. Transfer of learning can be positive, negative and zero transfer.
Positive Transfer:- If the earlier learning facilitates current learning.
Negative Transfer:- If the earlier learning is retarded due to current learning.
Zero Transfer:- When current learning has no impact on earlier learning. For example:- learning about cooking has no impact on learning basic communication skills.
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The role of teaching-learning is extremely important in modelling adolescents to become a better human being in society as they will lead society once they are grown up. The teaching-learning process represents the channel of communication through which the individual strives to acquire the habits, skills, knowledge, attitude, values and appreciation, that are vital for surviving in the information age. The teaching-learning, therefore, becomes a process by which changes in behavioural patterns are produced through experience.
The teaching-learning is brought about through teaching, the teaching process is the arrangement of the environment within which the students can interact and study how to learn. The process of teaching-learning aims at the transmission of knowledge, imparting skills and formation of attitudes, values and behaviour. Educationists have been trying to analyse the learning process in terms of the requirements of the individual and society. The behaviourist school of educationists classified the learning process under three domains namely, cognitive, affective and psychomotor.
Phases of Teaching:
Teaching is a complex process, it requires systematic planning to carry out. Jackson divides the teaching into three phases:
1. Pre-active phase: it is a phase of planning teacher makes the selection of books to be taught to students and decides whether to inform parents about the child's performance.
2. Interactive phase: the teacher uses strategies for achieving the goals set to teach students
3. Post-active phase: evaluation of the strategies being used to impart education to students, here teacher analysis to what extent students have grasped the material presented to them.
Levels of Teaching:
1. Memory Level
2. Understanding Level
3. Reflective Level
Maxims Of Teaching:
1. Proceed from easy to difficult
2. Proceed from know to unknown
3. Proceed from simple to complex
4. Proceed from direct to indirect
5. Proceed from particular to general
6. Proceed from whole to parts
7. Proceed from psychological to logical
8. Proceed from empirical to rational
9. Proceed from analysis to synthesis
10. Proceed from indefinite to definite
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Types of Teaching Method
1. Teacher-centred method
(a) Lecturing Method
(b) Demonstration Method
2. Student-centred method
(a) Play-way method by Frobel
(b) Questioning & Answering method by Socratic
(c) Observation Method
(d) Analytic Method
(e) Synthetic Method
(f) Inductive Method
(g) Deductive Method
(h) Project Method
(i) Problem-Solving Method
(j) Heuristic Method
(k) Dalton Plan/Laboratory Plan
(l) Regional Method by A.J.Harbartson
(m) Discovery Method by J.S. Bruner
5. Spontaneous Recovery
|Serial No.||Book Name||Author Name|
|1.||CTET and TETs Child Development and Pedagogy Paper 1 and 2||Arihant Experts|
|2.||CTET Child Development and Pedagogy for Paper 1 and Paper 2||By Pearson (Sandeep Kumar)|
|3.||Educating Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education||Mangal S.K|