Study Notes On Fallacies Part-2 For UGC NET Paper-1

By Mohit Choudhary|Updated : April 27th, 2022


We covered different kinds of fallacies in the previous post. Today, we are posting more different kinds of Fallacies. Prepare them thoroughly for the exam. Make notes of these fallacies and understand the difference between them. Usually, one question is always asked from the fallacies.

Wrong Direction

  • The cause and effect are reversed in it.
  • Example
  • Kidney problem leads to alcoholism.

Sweeping Generalization

  • This fallacy is committed when a rule that is generally accepted to be correct is used incorrectly in a particular instance.
  • Example
  • Example: "Divorce is rampant in America, Cynthia.
  • I have heard that 50% of marriages end in divorce within three years.
  • So I've decided not to marry you because the odds are against us."

Tu Quoque fallacy

  • In this, an accused person turns an allegation back on his or her accuser, thus creating a logical fallacy.
  • Example
  • Vikas: You cheated income tax by not disclosing your correct income. Don't you realize that's wrong
  • Neha: Vikas, You too cheated Income tax officer by not disclosing your incoming last year. Have you forgotten about that?

Faulty Cause and Effect

  • In this, it is assumed that one event causes another event.
  • EXAMPLES: Every time I watch a cricket match, it rains.


  • This type of fallacy arises from ambiguity. Such type of words and phrases are used which are ambiguous or have double meanings.
  • Example
  • I want to be absolutely clear with the people of the world: the United States does not torture.” (George W. Bush, 2006)

Complex Questions

  • In this, the question has presupposition built in, it protects the one who is asking the asking from the accusation of false claims. It implies something else. the audience does not detect the assumed information implicit in the question therefore it is a form of misleading discourse,
  • Example
  • How long can one survive without water?
  • Here, it is presumed that we need water to survive, which very few would deny that fact.

False dilemma

  • In this fallacy is committed by giving only two options out of the many options implying that there are no other options.
  • Example
  • Vote for me or live through four more years of higher taxes.
  • America: Love it or leave it.

Complex Cause

  • In this fallacy is committed when only one factor or event is considered as the cause of a complex event.
  • Example
  • The accident was caused by the poor location of the street sign. (Yes, it wouldn't have occurred had the driver not been drunk and the pedestrian not been walking carelessly.

Stacking the deck

  • Leaving out one side of an argument completely
  • A soft drink manufacturer may advertise that it launching DIET coke. Now the Diet coke is advertised as good for health. Although it may sound like good news, what we are not being told is that the diet coke is not calories free too and it is harmful to health.

Click here for part 1- Types of Fallacies.

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We hope you all understood the different kinds of Fallacies for the upcoming UGC NET Exam 2022.

Thank you

Team BYJU'S Exam Prep


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