Study Notes on Fallacies part-1 for Paper-1

By Ashwani Tyagi|Updated : July 22nd, 2021

Fallacies for UGC NET is considered as the most important topic. Every year 1-2 questions are asked from this section. It is very important for candidates to do this part carefully.                                                                                    

  • Fallacies are common errors or tricks in reasoning.
  • It undermines the logic of the argument.
  • It can be either illegitimate arguments or irrelevant points and are often identified because they lack evidence that supports their claim.
  • Fallacies can appear intentionally and unintentionally.
  • Unintentional fallacies are error, and intentional fallacies are trick.

Types of fallacies

Straw Man

  • In this, instead of on attacking the stronger argument, the opponent attacks the weaker argument.
  • Example
  • People who are not in favour of the government giving free ration to poor hate the poor.
  • In this example, the author move oversimplifies an opponent's viewpoint and then attacks that hollow argument.
  • But opposition must be having some valid point to support his argument.

Slippery Slope

  • In this conclusion is derived by assuming that if A happens, then eventually Z will happen through small steps B, C,..., X, Y.
  • It basically equates A and Z.
  • Example
  • While scolding a student teacher said ‘Today late for ten minutes, tomorrow late for 20 minutes, and then someday you will simply bunk the class’

Hasty Generalization

  • In this, conclusion based on incomplete and insufficient information or may be due to biasness.
  • Example:
  • For example, if my brother likes to eat a lot of pizza and French fries, and he is healthy, I can say that pizza and French fries are healthy and don't really make a person fat.

Post hoc ergo propter hoc

  • This in Latin means "after this, therefore because of this." In this, the conclusion is derived by assuming that if 'A' occurred after 'B' then 'B' must have caused 'A.'
  • Example:
  • Nearly all alcohol addicts drank beer before they tried alcohol. Clearly drinking beer leads to alcohol addiction."

Genetic Fallacy

  • In this conclusion is derived due to the origins of a person, or character or nature.
  • Example:
  • Volkswagons are poor cars because the Nazis created them.

Begging the Claim

  • In this, the conclusion is already validated within the claim of the speaker.
  • Example:
  • Consumption of excessive alcohol kills because alcohol is deadly.

Circular Argument

  • In this, the argument is restated rather than actually proving it.
  • Example:
  • Narendra Modi is a good communicator because he speaks very effectively.


  • In this conclusion is oversimplified by reducing the argument to two choices or sides.
  • Example:
  • We can either stop using fossil fuels or destroy the earth.

Ad hominem

  • In this, rather the criticising the opinion of the speaker, the speaker's character is attacked.
  • Example:
  • Workers are on strike for raising the minimum wage, but they are not smart enough to even run a business.

Ad populum/Bandwagon Appeal

  • In this, people belives in whatever most people believed in to make oneself to think the same way.
  • Example:
  • Everyone smokes in public, so it should not be against the law.

Ad Ignorantum

  • When someone tries to prove something to be true as it has not been proved false.
  • Example
  • God doesn't exist because no one can actually prove God existence.

Red Herring

  • In this, the speaker actually distracts from the original argument by referring to something else.
  • Example:
  • In government, arguing for raising taxes - "We need more revenue to support the programs that we have. Children are our future. Let's support children."

Moral Equivalence

  • This fallacy compares minor misdeeds with major atrocities, suggesting that both are equally immoral.
  • That Policeman who gives me a ticket for over-speeding is as bad as Hitler.

Click here for Part-2.

Try Online Classroom Program Now and get unlimited access to 12+ structured live courses and 200+ Mock tests.

We hope you all understood the topics discussed above for the upcoming UGC NET Exam 2021.

Thank you, Team gradeup.

Posted by:

Ashwani TyagiAshwani TyagiMember since Jun 2020
UGC NET Qualified 3 times (history)
Share this article   |


write a comment
Load Previous Comments
Aparna Raghuvanshi
Thankyou...This is really very helpful.
Ashwani Tyagi

JattuSep 11, 2020

Thank you
Protity Shuvra Dey
Thankyou so so much for this sir 🙏🏻☺️
Rajni Gupta

Rajni GuptaSep 11, 2020

Pls sir in hindi language
Padmini Pradhan
Thank you so much sir .plz provide history nots also .
Neha Tiwari

Neha TiwariSep 12, 2020

Good  content
Shiv Kumar

Shiv KumarApr 16, 2021

Thank you sir 🙏🌺💐 very nice notes 👌👌 Sir
Pooja Sharma

Pooja SharmaApr 17, 2021

Thanks sir ji
Vijay Kumar

Vijay KumarJul 22, 2021

Sir quiz Hindi me bhi dijiye   me  Hindi medium  se hu

Follow us for latest updates