UGC NET: Communication Notes (Part - II)
Communication is the exchange of thoughts, information, message, etc. by way of speech, writing or signal. Communication can be classified/divided on the basis of the following criteria:
1. Classification on the basis of receivers:
It classifies communication according to the number of persons (receivers) to whom the message is addressed:
- Intrapersonal Communication: It refers to talking to oneself in one’s own mind. It is a communicator's internal use of language or thought. Examples: Asides or soliloquy in dramatic works.
- Interpersonal Communication: It is the exchange of facts, information and messages between two persons. For example, a conversation, an interview, letter or a dialogue, in which two persons interact (others may also be present as the audience). An author is also an example where he/she interacts messages with the reader, who is a silent audience in the author’s mind.
- Group Communication: It is an extension of interpersonal communication where more than two persons are involved in the exchange of ideas, messages, skills, and interests. Examples: Meeting in an organization, club or classroom, Committee meetings
- Mass Communication: It refers to imparting and exchanging of information on a large scale to a wide range of people. It occurs when the information is shared with large groups of people. There are fewer chances of direct feedback as there is no personal contact between the senders and receivers. Examples: It can be done through various mediums such as newspaper, radio, or television, social networking etc.
2. Classification on the basis of the medium employed
Communication can be classified on the basis of the medium, channel or source used to share the ideas, information etc.
- Verbal Communication: It is a type of communication where the messages or information is exchanged through words either oral or written. It consists of speaking, listening, reading, writing and reading. It can be classified into two categories: Oral Communication and Written Communication. Examples: Face to Face Conversation, Telephonic Conversation, Emails etc.
- Non-verbal communication: It is a type of communication where information is exchanged by using signs, facial expressions, body language, and gestures. It is a wordless communication. It is done through sign language, object language, or an action language. Further, non-verbal communication can be categorized into:
- Facial expressions- smile, frown, sad, angry, confused, surprised
- Gesture- a movement of the hands, face, or other parts of the body.
- Body Language and Posture
- Eye Gaze
- Meta Communication: It is a secondary communication about how a piece of information is meant to be interpreted. Most of the times, the speaker’s choice of words unintentionally communicates something more than what the actual words state. It is actually the combination of verbal and non-verbal communication. For example: If I say “Glad to see you” and roll my eyes at the same time, you will not feel that I am actually glad to see you.
- Informal Communication: It is a type of communication that doesn't use any formal channel or structures in a company. The information flows through an informal communication channel that exists in a workplace is often termed -the grapevine. Communications travel in all diverse directions through which the employees get to know each other know each other well and interact socially. It isn’t confined to following the typical hierarchical flows of information, such as up and down the chain of command.
- Formal Communication: This communication is formally and mostly controlled by managers or people occupying positions in a particular organization. The communication passes through a formal channel, i.e. officially recognized positions along the line in the organization. This ensures that the information flows timely, orderly and accurately. Any information, memo, decision, reminder etc. will follow this path. It can be categorized into the following types:
(i). Downward Communication: The communication that flows from top to bottom i.e. from top management to subordinates in a hierarchy. The subject-matter of this communication includes instructions, policies, orders, rules, information, etc.
(ii). Upward Communication: The communication that flows from bottom to top, i.e. from lower hierarchical level (subordinates) to the higher level (managers). The subject-matter of this communication includes reports, complaints, suggestions, reactions etc.
(iii). Horizontal/Lateral Communication: The communication that takes place when two individuals of the same level exchange information. It is significant for the reviewing of the activities assigned to subordinates having identical positions. The subject-matter of horizontal communication includes mutual problems, information, requests, suggestions, and coordination-related information.
(iv). Diagonal /Crosswise Communication: The communication that includes the flow of information among persons at different levels who have no direct reporting relationships. It is used to speed up information flow, to improve understanding, and to coordinate efforts for the achievement of organizational objectives. Example: Communication between the marketing manager and training supervisor, regarding the Training of the selected employees of the Marketing Department, is Diagonal Communication.
Barriers to Effective Communication
There are many reasons why the message conveyed may not be received exactly the way the sender intended. These reasons are termed as barriers to communication and these may occur at any stage in the communication process. Following are the common barriers to effective communication:
1. Organizational Barriers: These are the barriers that generate from within the organization. These barriers include:
- Negative organizational climate
- An absence of communication policy
- Willful distortion of information (Filtering)
- Excessive authority layers
2. Individual Barriers: These are the barriers created by the sender and receiver because of their diverse personalities. These barriers include:
- Differences in personality
- Perceptual differences
- Halo Effect
3. Language or Semantic Barriers: This barrier occurs when words and symbols are interpreted differently by the sender and the receiver. This includes:
- Technical Jargons
- Unclarified Assumptions
- Words with different meanings
- Faulty Translations
4. Physical Barriers: These are the environmental and natural conditions that act as a barrier in communication in sending the message from sender to receiver. This includes:
- Environment – weather conditions
- Distance – working in different offices
- Ignorance of Medium
5. Psychological Barriers: This barrier is the influence of the psychological state of the communicators (sender and receiver) which creates an obstacle for effective communication. This includes:
- Lack of Attention
- Poor Retention
- Distrust and Defensiveness
- Perception, Viewpoint, Attitudes and Opinions
- Premature Evaluation
6. Cultural Barriers: Cultural diversity creates hindrances in communication as the mindset of people belonging to different cultures are different, the language, signs and symbols are also different. These barriers include:
- Signs and Symbols (Semantics)
- Stereotypes and Prejudices
- Behavior and Beliefs
The barriers mentioned above are the common ones. These have to be overcome in order to make communication effective.
Check out the study notes:
- Study Notes on Teaching
- Study Notes on Communication
- Study Notes on Reading Comprehension
- Study Notes on Data Interpretation
- How to score 60+ in Paper - I
We hope you all understood the terms related to communication for Paper-1 for UGC NET EXAM 2020.
Thank you,Team gradeup.