# Quality of Water Study Notes for Civil Engineering

By Ashutosh Yadav|Updated : October 8th, 2021

Through Champion Study Plan for GATE Civil Engineering(CE) 2022, we are providing very useful basic notes and other important resources on every topic of each subject. These topic-wise notes are useful for the preparation of various upcoming exams like GATE Civil Engineering(CE)/ IES/ BARC/ ISRO/ VIZAG/ DMRC/ SSC-JE/ State Engineering Services examinations and other important upcoming competitive exams.

The article contains fundamental notes on the "Quality of Water"  topic of the "Environmental Engineering" subject.

Through Champion Study Plan for GATE Civil Engineering(CE) 2022, we are providing very useful basic notes and other important resources on every topic of each subject. These topic-wise notes are useful for the preparation of various upcoming exams like GATE Civil Engineering(CE)/ IES/ BARC/ ISRO/ VIZAG/ DMRC/ SSC-JE/ State Engineering Services examinations and other important upcoming competitive exams.

The article contains fundamental notes on the "Quality of Water"  topic of the "Environmental Engineering" subject.

## Quality of Water

Total Solid and Suspended Solid

Acceptable limit of total solid = 500 mg/lit

Threshold odour number

where TON = Threshold odor number

constituents of Alkalinity

Major sources

Minor sources

(a)

Equivalent weight of

(b)

(c)

where,

Value of water

For strong acid.

For strong base

For neutral solution

Hardness of water

where,

(a)

Where,

atomic weight of Ca = 40

atomic weight of Mg = 24

atomic weight of O = 16

atomic weight C = 12

valency of Ca = 2

Valency of Mg = 2

(b)

(c)

Note: -ve value is taken as zero.

(d) Hardness

Household supplies limit 74-115 mg/l

(e) The acceptable limit of hardness = 200 mg/lit as

and cause of rejection is 600 mg/lit as

Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)

whereof 5 days

Loss of oxygen in mg/lit.

Initial dissolved oxygen concentration in the diluted sample.

Final dissolved oxygen concentration in the diluted sample.

(After 5 day of incubation of 20oC)

·              Turbidity>5 units–detectable by naked eye.

·              In Nephlometer, turbidity is expressed in FTU.

Biological WQP

Testing of Colliforms is done

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