Arab & Turkish invasions in India: We will study about Arab & Turkish Invasions in India. This is an important chapter of Medieval history.
- During the Khaliphate of Omar, Arab forces made fertile attempts to get Bombay
- Arabs captured Sindh in 712 AD.
- The Arab conquest of Sindh was led by Muhammed Bin Kassim.
- Muhammed Bin Khasim was the nephew of Al- Hajaj, the governor of the Arab province of Basra.
- Dahir, a Brahmin was the ruler of Punjab at that time. He was killed by Kassim.
- The Arabs lost control over Sindh in 779 AD.
- Arab conquest of Sindh resulted in the spread of Islam to North India.
- But Islam was first introduced in India by Malik Ibn Dinar in Kerala in 644 AD.
- Ghazni in Afghanistan was ruled by a Turkish family called Gamini of Ghaznavid dynasty.
- Muhammed Ghazni was the first Turkish conqueror of North India.
- Muhammad Ghazni’s father was Subu ktigin.
- He attacked India only for want of wealth.
- He attacked India seventeen times between 1000 and 1027 AD. He made all the raids in the guise of Jihad.
- First Invasion was in 1001 AD.
- He defeated Jaipal and Anandpal of Shahi dynasty in 1001 and 1009 respectively.
- The most important raid of Muhammed was the Somanath expedition. It was in 1025. He completely destroyed the temple. Somanath Temple was on the sea coast of Gujarat.
- Muhammed Ghazni died in 30th April 1030.
- Later his son Masud attacked India and captured Kashmir.
- The famous Persian poet Firdausi who wrote
- ‘Shahnama’ (The Book of Kings) lived in his court.
- Alberuni, an Arab Historian, who wrote Tarikhul- Hind (Reality of Hindustan), accompanied Muhammed Ghazni to India.
- Al-Firdausi is known as ‘Indian Homer’, ‘Persian Homer’, or ‘The Immortal Homer of the East’. Muhammed of Ghore attacked India betwen 1175 and 1206 AD.
- Muhammed Ghori made his first expedition to India and captured Multan in 1175 AD.
- In the First Battle Tarain in 1191 (near Taneswar) Muhammed Ghori was defeated by the Rajput forces under Prithviraj Chauhan III.
- In the Second Battle of Tarain (1192 AD) Muhammed Ghori assisted by Qutub-ud-din Aibek a slave, defeated Prithviraj Chauhan III and killed him.
- In 1193 Muhamed Ghori attacked Jaichand, father in law of Prithviraj. III at Kanauj, Jaichand was defeated.
- Muhammed Ghori returned from India by intrusting his territories in India in the hands of Qutub- Uddin Aibak.
- After the death of Ghori in 1206 Aibek founded the Slave Dynasty.
- Muhammed Ghori's Indian invasion resulted in the foundation of Islamic rule in India.
All The Best !!!