Overview of Rabi Crops and Karif Crops
In India, there are three major types of crops: Zaid, Rabi crops and Kharif Crops. The Rabi crops and Kharif crops are the major sources of subsistence in India. The Rabi crops are spring crops, whereas the Kharif crops are monsoon crops.
What are Crops?
Crops are special kinds of plants or their products. The crops are primarily produced and harvested for subsistence or commercial trading purposes. In India, farming came into existence around 9000 BC, where wheat, barley and jujube were primarily cultivated.
Crops can be of the following categories:
- Food crops
- Feed crops,
- Fibre crops,
- Oil crops,
- Ornamental crops, and
- Industrial crops.
Important Rabi and Kharif Crops Name
The above-mentioned 6 different types of crops can further be classified into three major categories as per the season they are cultivated and harvested in. The season-based category of crops is Zaid, Rabi and Kharif crops. The table provided below consists of the important Rabi and Kharif crop names sown in India in their respective seasons:
Kharif Crops Name
Rabi Crops Name
What is Kharif Crop?
Kharif crop is a monsoon crop cultivated in the Indian subcontinent during the monsoon season. The word is taken from the Arabic language, where Kharif means autumn. The significance of this word is that a crop is sown in monsoon and reaped close to Autumn. The sowing of Kharif started with the first rain of the monsoon.
About Kharif Crops
Kharif crops require a heavy amount of water to cultivate, which is why they are sown in the rainy season with abundant rainfall. A few of the Kharif crops are Peaches, Brinjal, and Cotton. Sarda, Sponge gourd, Guar, etc.
Kharif Season Months or Kharif Crops Season
Kharif crop is sown in the monsoon season. The sowing of the Kharif crop beings with rainfall in Late May or the start of June. The Kharif season ends with the harvesting of the crops during October–November.
- The major factor in this crop is the monsoon, as the water requirement for the Kharif crop is high, which is fulfilled by rain precipitation.
- In India, Monsoon enters around May, reaching Mumbai around June and Delhi at the end of June.
- The ending of the monsoon may extend to the latest January. The good monsoon season brings a boom in the Indian economy as around 600 million people participate in agriculture and 20% of the national GDP depends on agriculture.
Kharif Crops Examples
In India, there are vast types of Kharif crops. Types of Kharif crops are not the same throughout the country. Depending on the location, weather conditions, natural vegetation, and soil conditions, different Kharif crops are produced all over India. These crops heavily depend on the amount of rain.
List of Kharif Crops
Check out more than 20 examples of Kharif crops provided here. The list of Kharif crops is given below for various categories of crops produced in various parts of India.
Bitter gourd (karela)
Black gram (urad)
Rice (paddy and deepwater rice)
Green gram (moong)
Red gram (Pigeon pea)
What is Rabi Crop?
The second type of crop is the Rabi crop. This is known as the winter crop because it is sown this season. Rabi crop is harvested in the spring season. The Rabi name is also driven from the Arabic language; Rabi means spring. The significance of this is that it is harvested in that season.
About Rabi Crops
Rabi crops are planted after the monsoon season, generally in November. The water requirements for these crops are less than for the Kharif crops. These crops are less affected by rain precipitation.
Rabi Crop Season
Rabi crop grows in cold weather with adequate water. The soil moisture during the Rabi crop sowing is good since it is done just after the monsoon season. The crop is harvested during the month of April.
- These crops require warm weather to grow, which is why they are fully grown and harvested in April.
- Rabi crop season is known for the crops such as wheat, barley, peas, etc.
- Mustard is another Rabi crop. This crop is widely used in Indian households for cooking purposes. Mustard requires a dry and cool climate to grow.
Rabi Crops Examples
India is known for its variety of Rabi crops. As in India, varieties of Kharif crops are seen similarly. Various Rabi crops exist in India.
Legumes / lentils (dal)
Rabi and Kharif Difference
Aspirants can expect a few questions based on the Rabi and Kharif crop in the upcoming exams. Here is the Rabi and Kharif crops UPSC chart focusing differences prepared to help candidates quickly review the concepts for the exam.
May - November
October - April
Seeds sown at the beginning of the monsoon season.
Seeds are sown at the beginning of the winter
Major Producing States
Kerala, Punjab, Haryana, and Tamil Nadu
Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, MP, Punjab, Odisha, and Rajasthan.
End of the monsoon.
End of the winter around April.
are Jowar, Maize, Cotton, Bajra, Sugarcane, and Groundnut.
Linseed, Barley, Wheat, Cereals, and Mustard
Rabi And Kharif Crops For UPSC Exam
The aspirants must have an in-depth knowledge of Rabi crops and Kharif crops to perform exceptionally well in the exam. The aspirants can download the UPSC PDF for the exam and move ahead on the path of comprehensive preparation.
Candidates must be well versed in the difference between rabi and Kharif crops. This topic frames out to be an essential segment of the syllabus. It is highly recommended to the candidates practice the previous year's papers to get ahead on the path of preparation.